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Joseph Gallieni was born in Haute Garonne in 1849. He joined the army and served in West Africa and Tonkin and in 1886 was appointed governor of Upper Senegal. This was followed by the position of governor-general of Madagascar (1897-1905).
Gallieni retired from the French Army in 1914 but was recalled on the outbreak of the First World War. He was given the task of organizing the defence of Paris.
When Gallieni realised that the German First Army were turning east in early September, he sent the Sixth Army from Paris to strike at its flank. This was an important factor in the subsequent victory of the French at the Marne.
In October 1915 Gallieni was appointed French War Minister. Gallieni clashed with Joseph Joffre, the French Chief of Staff, and in March 1916 he resigned over the tactics used at Verdun. Already a sick man, Joseph Gallieni died three months later.
Vintage Video - Joseph Gallieni, 1914
Having retired from the French Army just months prior to the outbreak of war in 1914, Joseph Gallieni was hastily recalled in August to oversee the defence of Paris prior to the First Battle of the Marne.
Although Gallieni could reasonably claim a good deal of the credit for the French victory at the Marne, the Commander-in-Chief, Joseph Joffre, wary of Gallieni's influence and reputation, sought to marginalise the latter's role, keeping him at arm's length from headquarters.
Gallieni subsequently served as minister of war in October 1915 before retiring on grounds of ill-health in March 1916 his relationship with Joffre had proved a quarrelsome one. The strain of high office having broken his already fragile health, Joseph Gallieni died in May 1916, and was posthumously appointed Marshal in 1921.
Use the player above to view brief footage of Gallieni in 1914.
Saturday, 22 August, 2009 Michael Duffy
"Bellied" was a term used to describe when a tank's underside was caught upon an obstacle such that its tracks were unable to grip the earth.
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French general gives order to attack at the Marne
On the evening of September 5, 1914, General Joseph Joffre, commander in chief of the French army during World War I, readies his troops for a renewed offensive against the advancing Germans at the Marne River in northeastern France, set to begin the following morning.
With the French 6th Army poised to begin an attack from its position against the right flank of the German 1st Army to the northeast of Paris, Joffre was under pressure from Paris’ military governor, General Joseph-Simon Gallieni, to launch a general offensive in support of the attack. On September 3, Joffre made the difficult decision to replace the commander of the 5th Army, General Charles Lanrezac, punishing him for his caution in ordering a retreat at the Battle of Charleroi on August 22-24—which had in fact saved the French left wing from envelopment by the Germans𠅊nd replacing him with the more aggressive General Louis Franchet d𠆞sperey.
The French planned for the 5th Army, having crossed the Marne River east of Paris with the Germans in hot pursuit, to launch a coordinated attack with the 6th Army on the two advancing German armies: the 1st, under General Alexander von Kluck, and the 2nd, led by General Karl von Bulow. To ensure the attack’s success, however, the French wanted the support of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), under the command of Field Marshal Sir John French, who was still coordinating his army’s retreat after its defeat in the Battle of Mons, also on August 24.
At ten o𠆜lock on the night of September 4, Joffre signed the order authorizing the 6th Army’s attack. By the next morning, however, he was still uncertain about the commitment of the British troops. At a meeting later that afternoon, in French’s headquarters, Joffre pleaded with his British counterpart to authorize his troops to join in the attack, promising that the BEF would be supported on either side by the French 5th and 6th Armies. The “supreme moment” had arrived, Joffre insisted, and “the future of Europe” was on the line. “I cannot believe the British Army will refuse to do its share in this supreme crisis….The honor of England is at stake!” After struggling to answer in French, a visibly emotional British commander in chief gave up, reportedly exclaiming to one of his officers: mn it, I can’t explain. Tell him that all that men can do, our fellows will do.”
That night, Joffre signed the order proclaiming the attack at the Marne, to be read to his troops the next morning: 𠇊t the moment when the battle upon which hangs the fate of France is about to begin, all must remember that the time for looking back is past every effort must be concentrated on attacking and throwing the enemy back….Under present conditions no weakness can be tolerated.” The decisive four-day-long Battle of the Marne would end in an Allied victory, halting the month-long German advance and sparking a growing recognition on both sides that the war would go on longer than either had anticipated.
First World War [ edit | edit source ]
Retiring from the army in April 1914, Gallieni was recalled in August to assist in the defence of Paris prior to the First Battle of the Marne. Joffre, wary of Gallieni's influence and reputation, marginalised Gallieni's role to an extent. Joffre kept him at arm's length from headquarters, although it is widely believed that Gallieni's energy and foresight was what saved Paris from the Germans. While credit for the successful defense of Paris was largely assigned to Joffre, the fact that some believed Gallieni had actually won the battle once prompted Joffre to remark famously, "Je ne sais pas qui l'a gagnée, mais je sais bien qui l'aurait perdue." (I do not know who won it [the battle], but I know well who would have lost it."). Β]
Gallieni saw an opportunity to attack when the German First Army turned east in early September, sending the Sixth Army to strike its flank, and subsequently rushing reserves to the front by commandeered taxis in response to German counter-attacks. Upon seeing the "taxicab army" ferrying troops to the front, Gallieni made one of the most oft-quoted remarks of the First World War: "Eh bien, voilà au moins qui n'est pas banal!" ("Well, here at least is something out of the ordinary!"). The actual effects of the "taxicab army" on the French victory at the Marne may have been more modest than the myth.
Gallieni subsequently served as Minister of War in October 1915 before retiring, again citing ill-health in March 1916 his relationship with Joffre had proved a quarrelsome one, particularly over the tactics used at Verdun. The strain of high office having broken his already fragile health, Joseph Gallieni died in May 1916. He was posthumously made Marshal of France, in 1921. He was buried in Saint-Raphaël. Camp Gallieni in Kati was named after him. Γ]
Joseph Simon Gallieni - Encyclopedia
JOSEPH SIMON GALLIENI (1849-), French soldier and colonial administrator, was born at Saint-Beat, in the department of Haute-Garonne, on the 24th of April 1849. He left the military academy of Saint-Cyr in July 1870 as a second lieutenant in the Marines, becoming lieutenant in 1873 and captain in 1878. He saw service in the Franco-German War, and between 1877 and 1881 took an important part in the explorations and military expeditions by which the French dominion was extended in the basin of the upper Niger. He rendered a particularly valuable service by obtaining, in March 1881, a treaty from Ahmadu, almany of Segu, giving the French exclusive rights of commerce on the upper Niger. For this he received the gold medal of the Societe de Geographie. From 1883 to 1886 Gallieni was stationed in Martinique. On the 24th of June 1886 he attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and on the 10th of December was nominated governor of Upper Senegal. He obtained several successes against Ahmadu in 1887, and compelled Samory to agree to a treaty by which he abandoned the left bank of the Niger (see Senegal: History). In connexion with his service in West Africa, Gallieni published two works - Mission d'exploration du Haut-Niger,1879-1881(Paris, 1885), and Deux Campagnes au Sudan francais (Paris, 1891) - which, besides possessing great narrative interest, give information of considerable value in regard to the resources and topography of the country. In 1888 Gallieni was made an officer of the Legion of Honour. In 1891 he attained the rank of colonel, and from 1893 to 1895 he served in Tongking, commanding the second military division of the territory. In 1899 he published his experiences in Trois Colonnes au Tonkin. In 1896 Madagascar was made a French colony, and Gallieni was appointed resident-general (a title changed in 1897 to governorgeneral) and commander-in-chief. Under the weak administration of his predecessor a widespread revolt had broken out against the French. By a vigorous military system Gallieni succeeded in completing the subjugation of the island. He also turned his attention to the destruction of the political supremacy of the Hovas and the restoration of the autonomy of the other tribes. The execution of the queen's uncle, Ratsimamanga, and of Rainandrianampandry, the minister of the interior, in October 1896, and the exile of Queen Ranavalo III. herself in 1897, on the charge of fomenting rebellion, broke up the Hova hegemony, and made an end of Hova intrigues against French rule. The task of government was one of considerable difficulty. The application of the French customs and other like measures, disastrous to British and American trade, were matters for which Gallieni was not wholly responsible. His policy was directed to the development of the economic resources of the island and was conciliatory towards the non-French European population. He also secured for the Protestants religious liberty. In 1899 he published a Rapport d'ensemble sur la situation generale de Madagascar. In 1905, when he resigned the governorship, Madagascar enjoyed peace and a considerable measure of prosperity. In 1906 General Gallieni was appointed to command the XIV. army corps and military government of Lyons. He reviewed the results of his Madagascar administration in a book entitled Neuf Ans a Madagascar (Paris, 1908).
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The 19th century
Most of the 19th century was characterized by French colonial expansion from Senegal in the west and by Islamic jihads (religious wars) that led to the establishment of theocratic states. Shehu Ahmadu Lobbo (Cheikou Amadou), a Fulani Muslim cleric, successfully overturned the ruling Fulani dynasty in Macina in 1810 and established a theocratic state with its capital at Hamdallahi. In the west, political events were dominated by al-Ḥājj ʿUmar Tal, a Tukulor Muslim cleric who led a series of jihads. ʿUmar conquered the Bambara kingdom of Ségou in 1861 and the Fulani empire of Macina in 1864. After ʿUmar was killed in a skirmish with the Fulani in 1864, his vast domains were divided among his sons and commanders. His eldest son, Amadou Tal, who had been installed at Ségou, unsuccessfully attempted to exert control over the whole Tukulor empire in a series of civil wars. He became head of the Ségou Tukulor empire, whose predominantly Bambara inhabitants mounted constant revolts against his rule.
The French, who established a fort at Médine in western Mali in 1855, viewed the Ségou Tukulor empire as the principal obstacle to their acquisition of the Niger River valley. Fearful of British designs on the same region, they engaged in a series of diplomatic overtures and military operations to push the limits of their control eastward. Between 1880 and 1881 the French succeeded in expanding their control from Médine 200 miles (320 km) east to Kita, primarily through the diplomatic efforts of Capt. Joseph-Simon Gallieni, who signed protectorate treaties with chiefs at Bafoulabé and Kita.
In 1883 Gustave Borgnis-Desbordes launched a series of military campaigns against the Tukulor and the forces of Samory Touré, a Dyula Muslim leader who had founded a state to the south in the late 1860s. Borgnis-Desbordes captured Bamako during that year, giving the French a presence on the Niger. Between 1890 and 1893, Col. Louis Archinard launched a series of successful military operations that led to the final conquest of Ségou in 1893. Samory was driven into the Côte d’Ivoire colony and captured in 1898, the same year that the small Dyula kingdom of Kenedougou around Sikasso was conquered by French forces under Col. H.M. Audeod. Timbuktu was conquered in 1894 by the French officers Gaston Boiteaux, Eugène Bonnier, and Joseph-Jacques-Césaire Joffre, and the southern Sahara was finally brought under French control by méharistes (camel corps) by 1899.
Joseph Simon Gallieni (n. 24 aprile 1849, d. 27 mai 1916) a fost un soldat francez, cel mai activ în calitate de comandant militar și administrator în coloniile franceze si a terminat cariera lui în timpul Primului Război Mondial. El a fost făcut mareșal al Franței postum în 1921. Istoricii, cum ar fi Blond Georges, Vasile Hart Liddell, și Henri Isselin Gallieni de credit cu a fi inteligenta de ghidare din spatele victoria franceză în Bătălia Prima Marne în 1914.
Gallieni sa născut în Saint-Beat, în departamentul Haute-Garonne. El a fost educat la Militaire Prytanée în La Flèche, iar apoi Ecole Militaire Speciale de Saint-Cyr, devenind un al doilea locotenent în Regimentul de infanterie marină treilea înainte de servire în războiul franco-prusac. El a fost promovat locotenent în 1873 și în 1878 căpitanul. El a fost ulterior publicat în Africa, în mijlocul anilor 1870, luând parte la explorări și expediții militare diferite.
După ce a servit în Martinica, Gallieni a fost facut guvernator al Sudanul Francez, timp în care a înăbușit cu succes o rebeliune de insurgenți sudaneze sub Mahmadu Lamine. Din 1892-1896 a slujit în Indochina Franceza comanda doua divizie militară a teritoriului, înainte de a fi expediate către Madagascar, unde a servit ca guvernator până în 1905. Acolo el a suprimat din nou o revoltă, de data aceasta de către forțele monarhiste. În Madagascar, Gallieni implementat "ulei de la fața locului", metoda, care continuă să influențeze teoria contrainsurgență la această zi.
O alegere preferată pentru comandant suprem al armatei franceze în 1911, a scăzut Gallieni poziție în favoarea lui Joseph Joffre, invocând vârsta avansarea și probleme de sănătate.
Retrage din armată în aprilie 1914, a fost rechemat Gallieni în august pentru a ajuta la apărarea de la Paris, înainte de prima bătălie de la Marna. Joffre, abtine de influență Gallieni și reputația, marginalizați rolul lui Gallieni într-o măsură. Joffre l-au ținut la lungimea brațului de la sediul central, deși se crede că energia Gallieni și previziune a fost salvat ceea ce Paris de la germani. În timp ce creditul pentru apărarea cu succes de la Paris a fost în mare parte atribuită Joffre, faptul că unele Gallieni crezut a câștigat de fapt, bătălia a determinat o dată Joffre să remarcăm celebră, "Je ne sais pas qui l'o gagnée, mais je sais qui bien l ' aurait Perdue. " (Nu stiu cine a castigat [lupta], dar eu știu bine cine ar fi pierdut ".).
Gallieni a văzut o oportunitate de a ataca atunci când armata germană Prima avansat spre est, la începutul lunii septembrie, trimiterea Armatei șasea grevă flancul său, și graba, ulterior, la rezervele față de taxiuri rechiziționat ca răspuns la germani contra-atacuri. La văzut "armata taxi" transferul de trupe în față, Gallieni a făcut una dintre cele mai des remarci-citate ale Primului Război Mondial: "Eh bien, voilà au moins qui n'est pas banal!" ("Ei bine, aici, cel puțin este ceva ieșit din comun!"). Efectele reale ale "armatei taxi" pe victoria franceză de la Marne poate să fi fost mai modestă decât mitul.
Gallieni, ulterior, a servit ca ministru de Război în octombrie 1915 înainte de culcare, citând din nou probleme de sănătate martie 1916 relația sa cu Joffre sa dovedit unul certăreț, în special de-a lungul tacticile folosite de la Verdun. Tulpina de birou de mare au spart starea lui de sănătate deja fragilă, Joseph Gallieni a murit in mai 1916. El a fost post-mortem făcut mareșal al Franței, în 1921.
Gallieni, Joseph Simon
Joseph Simon Gallieni (zhôzĕf´ sēmôN´ gälyānē´) , 1849, French general and colonial administrator. He served well in the Sudan and Tonkin and, as governor-general (1896), solidly established French administration in Madagascar. Called from retirement in World War I, he served as military governor of Paris and was the crucial figure in the French victory of the Marne (1914). Although credit for the victory went to General Joffre as commander, it seems clear that it was Gallieni who saw the opportunity for counterattack and urged Joffre into action. Gallieni later became (1915) minister of war under Aristide Briand and demanded reorganization of the command and more complete preparation for war. The cabinet refused, and he resigned (1916) on a plea of ill health, dying within the year. His proposals were implemented after his death in 1921 he was made a marshal posthumously. Gallieni wrote several books on colonial affairs.
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French history Joseph Simon Gallieni *24.04.1849-27.05.1916+ General, France Gallieni defending Paris - painting by F. Roybet - 1914/15
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