This Day In History: 01/21/1977 - Carter Pardons Draft Dodgers

This Day In History: 01/21/1977 - Carter Pardons Draft Dodgers

President Jimmy Carter pardoned the Vietnam War draft dodgers, Lenin died, the first nuclear submarine called the Nautilus was launched, and a music company sued users for pirating music in This Day in History video. The date is January 21st. Lenin was part of the Russian Revolution.


President Barack Obama in 2017 commuted the 35-year prison sentence of WikiLeaks source Chelsea Manning, who was arrested in 2010 for sending to the secrets-spilling site thousands of documents on the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Manning, who revealed she is transgender in 2013, was given the unusually long sentence just two months after former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden leaked documents on US government surveillance programs. Her penalty was widely interpreted as a warning to other would-be leakers.

Manning’s detractors say she risked the lives of troops and US sources by allowing for the publication of potentially sensitive field reports.

WikiLeaks publisher Julian Assange, whose allies are lobbying Trump for a pardon, was charged in 2019 under the Espionage Act for allegedly encouraging Manning to send him documents.

Trump has declined to comment publicly on Assange, but told The Post in August that he’s open to Snowden returning to the US without prison time.


President Carter pardons draft dodgers: 1977

On this day in 1977, U.S. President Jimmy Carter grants an unconditional pardon to hundreds of thousands of men who evaded the draft during the Vietnam War.

In total, some 100,000 young Americans went abroad in the late 1960s and early 70s to avoid serving in the war. Ninety percent went to Canada, where after some initial controversy they were eventually welcomed as immigrants. Still others hid inside the United States. In addition to those who avoided the draft, a relatively small number–about 1,000–of deserters from the U.S. armed forces also headed to Canada. While the Canadian government technically reserved the right to prosecute deserters, in practice they left them alone, even instructing border guards not to ask too many questions.

For its part, the U.S. government continued to prosecute draft evaders after the Vietnam War ended. A total of 209,517 men were formally accused of violating draft laws, while government officials estimate another 360,000 were never formally accused. If they returned home, those living in Canada or elsewhere faced prison sentences or forced military service. During his 1976 presidential campaign, Jimmy Carter promised to pardon draft dodgers as a way of putting the war and the bitter divisions it caused firmly in the past. After winning the election, Carter wasted no time in making good on his word. Though many transplanted Americans returned home, an estimated 50,000 settled permanently in Canada, greatly expanding the country’s arts and academic scenes and pushing Canadian politics decidedly to the left.

Back in the U.S., Carter’s decision generated a good deal of controversy. Heavily criticized by veterans’ groups and others for allowing unpatriotic lawbreakers to get off scot-free, the pardon and companion relief plan came under fire from amnesty groups for not addressing deserters, soldiers who were dishonorably discharged or civilian anti-war demonstrators who had been prosecuted for their resistance.

Years later, Vietnam-era draft evasion still carries a powerful stigma. Though no prominent political figures have been found to have broken any draft laws, Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush and Vice-Presidents Dan Quayle and Dick Cheney–none of whom saw combat in Vietnam–have all been accused of being draft dodgers at one time or another. Although there is not currently a draft in the U.S., desertion and conscientious objection have remained pressing issues among the armed forces during the recent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.

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"The Charbor Chronicles"

Once again, it should be reiterated, that this does not pretend to be a very extensive history of what happened on this day (nor is it the most original - the links can be found down below). If you know something that I am missing, by all means, shoot me an email or leave a comment, and let me know!

Jan 21, 1793: King Louis XVI executed

One day after being convicted of conspiracy with foreign powers and sentenced to death by the French National Convention, King Louis XVI is executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution in Paris.

Louis ascended to the French throne in 1774 and from the start was unsuited to deal with the severe financial problems that he had inherited from his grandfather, King Louis XV. In 1789, in a last-ditch attempt to resolve his country's financial crisis, Louis assembled the States-General, a national assembly that represented the three "estates" of the French people--the nobles, the clergy, and the commons. The States-General had not been assembled since 1614, and the third estate--the commons--used the opportunity to declare itself the National Assembly, igniting the French Revolution. On July 14, 1789, violence erupted when Parisians stormed the Bastille--a state prison where they believed ammunition was stored.

Although outwardly accepting the revolution, Louis resisted the advice of constitutional monarchists who sought to reform the monarchy in order to save it he also permitted the reactionary plotting of his unpopular queen, Marie Antoinette. In October 1789, a mob marched on Versailles and forced the royal couple to move to Tuileries in June 1791, opposition to the royal pair had become so fierce that the two were forced to flee to Austria. During their trip, Marie and Louis were apprehended at Varennes, France, and carried back to Paris. There, Louis was forced to accept the constitution of 1791, which reduced him to a mere figurehead.

In August 1792, the royal couple was arrested by the sans-cullottes and imprisoned, and in September the monarchy was abolished by the National Convention (which had replaced the National Assembly). In November, evidence of Louis XVI's counterrevolutionary intrigues with Austria and other foreign nations was discovered, and he was put on trial for treason by the National Convention.

The next January, Louis was convicted and condemned to death by a narrow majority. On January 21, he walked steadfastly to the guillotine and was executed. Nine months later, Marie Antoinette was convicted of treason by a tribunal, and on October 16 she followed her husband to the guillotine.











Jan 21, 1924: Vladimir Ilyich Lenin dies

In Moscow on the evening of January 21, 1924, shock and near-hysterical grief greets the news that Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, leader of the radical socialist Bolshevik movement that toppled the czarist regime in 1917 and head of the first government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), had died of a massive cerebral hemorrhage.

Influenced early on by Karl Marx s seminal text Das Kapital, Lenin was radicalized further by the execution of his older brother, Alexander, for conspiring to kill Czar Alexander III in 1887. The brooding, fiercely intellectual Lenin married the principles of Marxist thought to his own theory of organization and the reality of Russian demographics, envisioning a group of elite professional revolutionaries, or a "vanguard of the proletariat," who would first lead the agrarian masses of Russia to victory over the tyrannical czarist regime and eventually incite a worldwide revolution. He laid out this theory in his most famous treatise, What Is To Be Done?, in 1902. Lenin s insistence on the necessity of this vanguard led to a split in Russia s Social Democratic Labor Party in 1903 between his supporters?a small majority that was thereafter known as the Bolsheviks?and his opponents, the Mensheviks.

After the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Lenin?then living in Switzerland?urged his Bolshevik supporters in Russia to turn the "imperialist" conflict into a civil war that would liberate the working classes from the yoke of the bourgeoisie and monarchy. With the success of the February Revolution and the abdication of Czar Nicholas II in March 1917, Lenin managed, with German help, to travel back to Russia, where he worked with his deputy, LÉon Trotsky, to orchestrate the Bolshevik seizure of power from the unsteady provisional government that November. Lenin declared an immediate armistice with the Central Powers and acted quickly to consolidate the power of the new Soviet state under his newly named Communist Party to that end, in a brutal civil war, his supporters, the "Reds," had to combat "White" rebellions that sprung up all over Russia.

In his six years in power, Lenin struggled with the difficulty of implementing his utopian vision within the borders of the Soviet state as well as the failure of his predicted international revolution to materialize. Together, Lenin and his circle of advisers, or Politburo?which included Trotsky, his faithful henchman during the civil war, and Joseph Stalin, the general secretary of the Communist Party?worked to ruthlessly and systematically destroy all opposition to Communist policies within the new U.S.S.R., proclaimed in 1922. Instruments in this repression included a newly created secret police, the Cheka, and the first of the gulags, or concentration camps, that Stalin would later put to even more deadly use.

Lenin suffered a stroke in May 1922 a second one, more debilitating, came in March of the following year, leaving him mute and effectively ending his political career. At the time of his death, The New York Times reported that "it is the general opinion that Lenin's death will unify and strengthen the Communist Party as nothing else could do. No one who knows them both doubts that Trotsky and Stalin will bury the hatchet over his grave." This would not be the case: Stalin worked quickly to control the situation, encouraging the deification of Lenin?who before his death had called for Stalin s dismissal?while simultaneously working to discredit (and eventually destoy) Trotsky and the rest of his rivals in the Politburo. By 1930, Stalin stood alone at the head of the Soviet state, with all the terrifying machinery Lenin s revolution had created at his disposal.









Jan 21, 1977: President Carter pardons draft dodgers

On this day in 1977, U.S. President Jimmy Carter grants an unconditional pardon to hundreds of thousands of men who evaded the draft during the Vietnam War.

In total, some 100,000 young Americans went abroad in the late 1960s and early 70s to avoid serving in the war. Ninety percent went to Canada, where after some initial controversy they were eventually welcomed as immigrants. Still others hid inside the United States. In addition to those who avoided the draft, a relatively small number--about 1,000--of deserters from the U.S. armed forces also headed to Canada. While the Canadian government technically reserved the right to prosecute deserters, in practice they left them alone, even instructing border guards not to ask too many questions.

For its part, the U.S. government continued to prosecute draft evaders after the Vietnam War ended. A total of 209,517 men were formally accused of violating draft laws, while government officials estimate another 360,000 were never formally accused. If they returned home, those living in Canada or elsewhere faced prison sentences or forced military service. During his 1976 presidential campaign, Jimmy Carter promised to pardon draft dodgers as a way of putting the war and the bitter divisions it caused firmly in the past. After winning the election, Carter wasted no time in making good on his word. Though many transplanted Americans returned home, an estimated 50,000 settled permanently in Canada, greatly expanding the country's arts and academic scenes and pushing Canadian politics decidedly to the left.

Back in the U.S., Carter's decision generated a good deal of controversy. Heavily criticized by veterans' groups and others for allowing unpatriotic lawbreakers to get off scot-free, the pardon and companion relief plan came under fire from amnesty groups for not addressing deserters, soldiers who were dishonorably discharged or civilian anti-war demonstrators who had been prosecuted for their resistance.

Years later, Vietnam-era draft evasion still carries a powerful stigma. Though no prominent political figures have been found to have broken any draft laws, Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush and Vice-Presidents Dan Quayle and Dick Cheney--none of whom saw combat in Vietnam--have all been accused of being draft dodgers at one time or another. Although there is not currently a draft in the U.S., desertion and conscientious objection have remained pressing issues among the armed forces during the recent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Here's a more detailed look at events that transpired on this date throughout history:


Today in History: 1977, President Carter pardons draft dodgers

U.S. President Jimmy Carter grants an unconditional pardon to hundreds of thousands of men who evaded the draft during the Vietnam War.

In total, some 100,000 young Americans went abroad in the late 1960s and early 70s to avoid serving in the war. Ninety percent went to Canada, where after some initial controversy they were eventually welcomed as immigrants. Still others hid inside the United States. In addition to those who avoided the draft, a relatively small number–about 1,000–of deserters from the U.S. armed forces also headed to Canada. While the Canadian government technically reserved the right to prosecute deserters, in practice they left them alone, even instructing border guards not to ask too many questions.

For its part, the U.S. government continued to prosecute draft evaders after the Vietnam War ended. A total of 209,517 men were formally accused of violating draft laws, while government officials estimate another 360,000 were never formally accused. If they returned home, those living in Canada or elsewhere faced prison sentences or forced military service. During his 1976 presidential campaign, Jimmy Carter promised to pardon draft dodgers as a way of putting the war and the bitter divisions it caused firmly in the past. After winning the election, Carter wasted no time in making good on his word. Though many transplanted Americans returned home, an estimated 50,000 settled permanently in Canada, greatly expanding the country’s arts and academic scenes and pushing Canadian politics decidedly to the left.


Today: On first day in office, Carter pardons Vietnam draft dodgers

Today is Monday, Jan. 21, the 21st day of 2019. There are 344 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Jan. 21, 1977, on his first full day in office, President Jimmy Carter pardoned almost all Vietnam War draft evaders.

In 1793, during the French Revolution, King Louis XVI, condemned for treason, was executed on the guillotine.

In 1861, Jefferson Davis of Mississippi and four other Southerners whose states had seceded from the Union resigned from the U.S. Senate.

In 1908, New York City’s Board of Aldermen passed an ordinance prohibiting women from smoking in public establishments. The measure was vetoed by Mayor George B. McClellan Jr., but not before one woman, Katie Mulcahey, was jailed overnight for refusing to pay a fine.

In 1924, Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin died at age 53.

In 1950, former State Department official Alger Hiss, accused of being part of a Communist spy ring, was found guilty in New York of lying to a grand jury. Hiss, who proclaimed his innocence, served less than four years in prison.

In 1954, the first atomic submarine, the USS Nautilus, was launched at Groton Connecticut . However, the Nautilus did not make its first nuclear-powered run until nearly a year later.

In 1958, Charles Starkweather, 19, killed three relatives of his 14-year-old girlfriend, Caril Ann Fugate, at her family’s home in Lincoln, Nebraska. Starkweather and Fugate went on a road trip which resulted in seven more slayings Starkweather was eventually executed while Fugate spent 17 years in prison despite maintaining she was a hostage, not an accomplice.

In 1968, the North Vietnamese Army launched a full-scale assault against the U.S. combat base in Khe Sanh, South Vietnam, in a siege lasting 11 weeks although the Americans were able to hold back the communists, they ended up dismantling and abandoning the base.

In 1982, convict-turned-author Jack Henry Abbott was found guilty in New York of first-degree manslaughter in the stabbing death of waiter Richard Adan in 1981. Abbott was later sentenced to 15 years to life in prison he committed suicide in 2002.

In 1997, Speaker Newt Gingrich was reprimanded and fined as the House voted for the first time in history to discipline its leader for ethical misconduct.

In 1998, Pope John Paul II began a historic pilgrimage to Cuba. Actor Jack Lord of “Hawaii Five-O” fame died in Honolulu at age 77.

In 2003, The Census Bureau announced that Hispanics had surpassed blacks as America’s largest minority group.

Ten years ago: In a whirlwind first full day in office, President Barack Obama showcased efforts to revive the economy, summoned top military officials to chart a new course in Iraq and eased into the daunting thicket of Middle East diplomacy. The Senate confirmed Hillary Rodham Clinton as secretary of state.

Five years ago: Former Virginia Gov. Bob McDonnell, once viewed as a rising star in the GOP, and his wife, Maureen, were indicted on federal corruption charges the couple denied wrongdoing. A jury in September 2014 convicted the McDonnells of doing favors for former Star Scientific CEO Jonnie Williams in exchange for more than $165,000 in low-interest loans and gifts. Their convictions were later overturned as the U.S. Supreme Court narrowed the definition of public corruption.

One year ago: Security forces in Afghanistan brought an end to an overnight siege by Taliban militants at the Intercontinental Hotel in Kabul four American citizens were among 22 people killed in the 13-hour attack. “Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri” swept the Screen Actors Guild Awards with wins for best ensemble, best actress for Frances McDormand, and best supporting actor for Sam Rockwell.

The Philadelphia Eagles stunned the Minnesota Vikings, 38-7, in the NFC title game to advance to the Super Bowl against the New England Patriots, who had scored a 24-20 comeback win over the Jacksonville Jaguars in the AFC title game.

The Eagles would go on to win their first Super Bowl.

Today’s Birthdays: World Golf Hall of Famer Jack Nicklaus is 79. Opera singer-conductor Placido Domingo is 78. Singer Mac Davis is 77. Actress Jill Eikenberry is 72. Country musician Jim Ibbotson is 72. Singer-songwriter Billy Ocean is 69. Former U.S. Ambassador to China Gary Locke is 69. Former U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder is 68. Actor-director Robby Benson is 63. Actress Geena Davis is 63.

Basketball Hall of Famer Hakeem Olajuwon is 56. Actress Charlotte Ross is 51. Actor John Ducey is 50. Actress Karina Lombard is 50.

Actor Ken Leung is 49. Rapper Levirt (B-Rock and the Bizz) is 49. Rock musician Mark Trojanowski (Sister Hazel) is 49. Rock singer-songwriter Cat Power is 47. Rock DJ Chris Kilmore (Incubus) is 46.

Actor Vincent Laresca is 45. Singer Emma Bunton (Spice Girls) is 43. Actor Jerry Trainor is 42. Country singer Phil Stacey is 41.

Rhythm-and-blues singer Nokio (Dru Hill) is 40. Actress Izabella Miko is 38. Actor Luke Grimes is 35. Actress Feliz Ramirez is 27.

Thought for Today: “The road to ruin is always in good repair, and the travellers pay the expense of it.” — Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw), American humorist (1818-1885).


A Pardon Under Controversy

This Day in History: January 21, 1977

War is ugly. War is cruel. War has raged somewhere on the planet Earth since the beginning of time. While some situations can and have been resolved without acts of war, often War is unavoidable, inevitable and always carries with it extreme violence, death and destruction. What about those serving, electing to serve or not, during wartime? or Being drafted to serve without any question, discussion or possible choice? You serve or risk being classified a deserter or labeled a draft-dodger for the rest of your life. This is a tough subject to approach because of so much controversy surrounding war and the soldiers of war, especially when the purpose of American participation in the war is under fire.

U.S. anti-Vietnam War protesters
at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
A placard to the right reads
"Use your head - not your draft card"
Controversy surrounds this day in history.

On this day in 1977, U.S. President Jimmy Carter granted an unconditional pardon to hundreds of thousands of men who evaded the draft during the Vietnam War. This was a war plagued with protest and controversy from the time America first entered into the conflict. U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and again in 1962. U.S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965.

The Vietnam War occurred during the time when the draft (Selective Service) was still in effect. To provide manpower to the U.S. Armed Services, men were drafted to fill vacancies since there was a lack of sufficient number of volunteers. This occurred from 1948 - 1973 and was not limited to periods of conflict but also enforced during peacetime.

Statistics show some 100,000 young Americans went abroad in the late 1960s and early 70s. Why? The answer: To avoid the draft, to avoid serving in the war. After the war ended, it has been reported that a total of 209,517 men were formally accused of violating draft laws. That is not where the numbers end either. Government officials estimate another 360,000 were never formally accused.


Presidential pardons

The controversy surrounding Bill Clinton's messy departure from office is congealing on the 140 or so pardons he granted during the final days of his presidency. Several questionable figures were let off the hook in, it's alleged, an equally questionable way, including fugitive businessman Marc Rich.

Nevertheless, the US president's powers of pardon are constitutionally enshrined, far-reaching and relatively unchecked by other bodies. Clinton isn't the first to blithely misuse these powers with in the untouchable twilight days of office, or even the worst. Here are some of the pardons granted by his predecessors:

George Bush Sr
Former defence secretary Caspar Weinburger and five other individuals were pardoned by Dubya's dad in late 1992, just before they were due for trial over their part in the Iran-Contra scandal.

This could just be all-too-predictable Republican chumminess (Bush described his former colleague as a "true American patriot"), but it was speculated that Bush was covering up his own involvement in the affair, as Ronald Reagan's former vice-president.

The incoming Clinton responded by saying he was concerned "by any action which sends a signal that, if you work for the government, you're above the law".

Ronald Reagan
More self-controlled in his final days than Bush, Reagan resisted pardoning John Poindexter and Oliver North, the national security advisor and aide at the centre of Iran-Contra he (rightly) reasoned that exonerating them would draw attention to his own role and let the matter go to trial.

He did, however, pardon George Steinbrenner for illegal donations to Richard Nixon's 1972 campaign. The decision only provoked a storm of articles about the owner of the New York Yankees and a long-forgotten scandal was clumsily raked over once again

Jimmy Carter
In a magnanimous gesture on the first day of his presidency in 1977, Carter proclaimed amnesty for all Vietnam draft dodgers, extending the more limited overtures offered by previous White House incumbent Gerard Ford. Later in the year he pardoned all military deserters.

He was, however, later criticised by those who were supposed to benefit for failing to carry through these measures - veterans were incensed at the new president's wilfully short memory. One accusation levelled by both parties was that Carter simply made the pledge to ensure his election. All in all, it was far more divisive than Carter intended.

Gerard Ford
Infamously pardoned Richard Nixon after his resignation over the Watergate scandal. Appealing to the same kind of personal clemency invoked in the Bush/Weinburger affair, Ford stated melodramatically that he could not "prolong the bad dreams that continue to reopen a chapter that is closed" - resulting in Nixon escaping trial as a private citizen.

The decision, naturally, was intensely criticised, leading to a terminal decline in Ford's popularity. A rather crucial error, only one month into his presidency.

Richard Nixon
One of "Tricky's" first acts as president was to commute the prison sentence of former Teamster Union leader Jimmy Hoffa, imprisoned for embezzling funds, on the condition that he did not resume union activities. Hoffa was a long-time Republican party supporter and had funded Nixon during his battles with John F Kennedy.

Not entirely unexpectedly, FBI records revealed Nixon received illegal campaign donations in return for the pardon - part of the network of venality that brought his administration crashing down.


This Day In History: 01/21/1977 - Carter Pardons Draft Dodgers - HISTORY

American troops levels in Vietnam were increasing by the hundreds of thousands in the second half of the 1960s by the height of the war the number reached half a million. The soldiers often came from conscription, as they did in WW II, but Vietnam was a lot less popular and the draft was often dodged by various illegal means. The government continued to prosecute dodgers for years after the war, until President Jimmy Carter issued a blanket presidential pardon.

On this day, January 21, 1977, as one of his first actions in office, President Carter unconditionally pardoned anyone who registered but went abroad to avoid being drafted, or who did not register at all. The pardon meant the U.S. government no longer retained the authority to prosecute them for those actions.

Around 100,000 people left the United States to avoid being called up the overwhelming majority going to Canada. Canadian authorities promised to find and prosecute the dodgers, but more often chose to look the other way. After the pardon, some of the dodgers returned, but around half chose to permanently remain in Canada – some even entering Canadian politics.


Proclamation 4483: Granting Pardon for Violations of the Selective Service Act

Acting pursuant to the grant of authority in Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution of the United States, I, Jimmy Carter, President of the United States, do hereby grant a full, complete and unconditional pardon to: (1) all persons who may have committed any offense between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973 in violation of the Military Selective Service Act or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder and (2) all persons heretofore convicted, irrespective of the date of conviction, of any offense committed between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973 in violation of the Military Selective Service Act, or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, restoring to them full political, civil and other rights.

This pardon does not apply to the following who are specifically excluded therefrom:

(1) All persons convicted of or who may have committed any offense in violation of the Military Selective Service Act, or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, involving force or violence and

(2) All persons convicted of or who may have committed any offense in violation of the Military Selective Service Act, or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, in connection with duties or responsibilities arising out of employment as agents, officers or employees of the Military Selective Service system.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this 21st day of January, in the year of our Lord nineteen
hundred and seventy-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and first.


Watch the video: Today in History for January 21. President Carter pardons draft dodgers