Stone Age foragers had passion for sweet acorns, causing tooth decay

Stone Age foragers had passion for sweet acorns, causing tooth decay


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A new study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences has found that ancient hunter-gatherers had a passion for carbohydrate-rich snacks, such as sweet acorns, which caused extensive tooth decay, tooth loss, and other dental problems. While eating nuts and acorns may have helped hunter-gatherers survive 15,000 years ago in northern Africa, it also had its consequences.

The research comes from the discovery of skeletons unearthed in the Grotte des Pigeons cave in northern Morocco. Although more than 100 remains have been excavated from the cave over the last one hundred years, study co-author Louise Humphrey and her colleagues found a new patch of 14 burials in the back of the cave.

Ochre-stained beads and other artefacts have shown that humans occupied the cave intermittently from at least 80,000 years ago till about 10,000 years ago, with people living in the front of the cave and burying their dead in the back. Analysis of sediments at the front of the cave revealed that the ancient people feasted on snails, pine nuts and acorns, which might have tasted a bit like sweet chestnuts. There were so many remnants of acorns that researchers came to the conclusion that they must have been harvested and stored for eating as a staple food all year long.

The scientists analysed the teeth from the cave skeletons, which date to between 15,000 and 13,900 years ago. They found that half the teeth show evidence of severe tooth decay, almost all of them had cavities, and many also had abscesses that ate holes through their jaws. Humphreys believes that the sweet nuts provided food for Streptococcus mutans, the plaque-causing bacteria responsible for tooth decay.

"They would have suffered from frequent tooth ache and bad breath," said co-author Isabelle DeGroote of Liverpool John Moores University.

However, the scientists have suggested that the group of ancient people found in this cave may be an exception and not a rule in terms of the quantity of teeth-damaging foods they ate. For example, previous studies had found that, while about 90% of adults in the US suffer from cavities, less than 2% of Stone Age foragers had cavities.


    Deep decay is seen in the molars on the right, with an abscess perforation of the jaw just below

    Scientists have found some of the earliest evidence for widespread tooth decay in humans.

    It comes from the skeletal remains of Stone-Age hunter-gatherers who lived in what is now Morocco more than 13,700 years ago.

    The researchers tell the PNAS journal that the individuals were eating a lot of high-carbohydrate nutty foods.

    The poor condition of their teeth suggests they were often in agony.

    “At a certain point, the tooth nerve dies but up until that moment, the pain is very bad and if you get an abscess the pain is excruciating because of the pressure on the jaw,” explained Dr Louise Humphrey, from London’s Natural History Museum.

    “Then, of course, the bone eventually perforates and the abscess drains away, and we see this in a lot of the jaw remains that we studied.”

    With all our sugary foods, tooth decay has become a ubiquitous problem for modern societies, but it was not always quite so bad.

    Dental health took a definite turn for the worse when people settled into agricultural communities with domesticated crops and started to consume far more carbohydrates. But even in earlier hunter-gatherer societies, it seems, the sugar-rich content in some plant foods was causing difficulties.

    Bad bacteria

    Scientists reviewed the dental condition of 52 skeletons dug up at the Grotte des Pigeons complex at Taforalt in eastern Morocco over the past 10 years.

    These skeletons covered a period from 13,700 years ago to about 15,000 years ago.

    All bar three individuals displayed tooth decay, with cavities or other lesions affecting more than half of the surviving teeth. In some individuals, the oral health was so bad that destructive abscesses had developed.

    Wild plant remains at Taforalt indicate these Stone Age people were snacking frequently on sweet acorns, pine nuts and pistachios. Snails were also popular.

    With little if any oral hygiene, the Taforalt diet would have fuelled the mouth bacteria that produce the acid that rots tooth enamel.

    As well as pain, the individuals on occasion probably had extremely bad breath.

    What is interesting about this study is that it identifies high rates of tooth decay several thousand years before the wide-scale adoption of agricultural practices.

    The Grotte des Pigeons complex was used by hunter-gatherers as a base over thousands of years

    But although the Taforalt people were still gathering wild plants, they had nonetheless become a relatively sedentary community.

    This is evidenced from the long sequence of burials at Grotte des Pigeons and its deep “rubbish tip” containing plant discards – factors that enabled the scientists to examine both a large number of individuals and tie their oral health to the types of foods they were consuming.

    Sweet acorns were a particularly dominant feature in the diet, said Dr Humphrey, and may have been the prime cause of much of the dental decay.

    “Sweet acorns are neat, easily storable packages of carbohydrate. We think they were cooking them, and that would have made them sticky. The cooking process would have already started to break down the carbohydrates, but the stickiness of the food would then have got into the gaps in the teeth and literally stuck around. And if you’ve already got cavities, it becomes a bit of a vicious circle.”


    9 They Had To Share Their Beer

    Chemical analysis has just offered direct evidence that the Mesopotamians loved beer. Researchers studied various items from Khani Masi, now the Kurdish region of Iraq, and found residue from beer consumed between 1500 and 1000 BC.

    Mesopotamian beer was like ours, made from barley rather than rice or corn like ancient Chinese and Peruvian &ldquobeer.&rdquo But the drinking of the beverage was different. Instead of using personal vessels, the Mesopotamians drank from sizable communal containers by each dipping a long, metal-tipped straw into the brew.

    Mesopotamians did eventually start drinking from personal, handheld containers as social traditions grew weaker. These containers held up to 600 milliliters (20 oz) of brew, or nearly two modern-day beer bottles. [2]


    Critical Thinker

    March 10 Chromebook In-Class Objective: Write first half of the essay.

    March 12 Chromebook In-Class Objective: Write second half of the essay. 

    March 17 Essay 1 Due on turnitin

    Essay #1 (1,000 words)

    You need minimum 2 sources for your MLA Works Cited page.

    Read Tad Friend’s New Yorker online article “ Can a Burger Help Solve Climate Change? ” and look at two opposing camps on the role of alternative protein sources as a viable replacement for meat. One camp says we face too many obstacles to accept non-animal alternative proteins: evolution, taste, and  cost, to name several. An opposing camp says we have the technology and the proven product in Impossible Foods and other non-meat proteins to replace animal protein. Assessing these two opposing camps in the context of Tad Friend’s essay, develop an argumentative thesis addresses the question: How viable is the push for tech companies to help climate change by replacing animals with alternative proteins?

    Read Elizabeth Anderson’s “ If God Is Dead, Is Everything Permitted ?” and defend, refute, or complicate the author’s claim that non-religious societies offer a superior moral framework for human evolution than religious societies.  

    In the context of the Netflix documentary Fyre: The Greatest Party That Never Happened , develop an argument about how Yuval Noah Harari's explanation of the Cognitive Revolution exposes human vulnerability to mass manipulation, deceit, and Groupthink.

    Support, refute, or complicate Harari’s assertion that the “agricultural revolution was the greatest crime against humanity.”

    Suggested Outline:

    Paragraph 1: Introduction, explain key differences between foragers and people living in AR. 

    Paragraph 2: Your thesis or claim.

    Paragraphs 3-5, supporting paragraphs.

    Paragraph 6, counterargument-rebuttal.

    Paragraph 7, conclusion is a powerful restatement of your thesis. 

    Last page is Works Cited with 2 sources. 

    Sample Thesis and Outline

    Harari makes a persuasive case that the AR is inferior to the Forager Age evidenced by __________________, ________________, ____________________, and ______________________.   

    Sample Counterargument and Conclusion

    While I love Sapiens as a life-altering book on how I regard the human race, where we came from, where we are today, and where we are going, I am not totally drinking the Noah Yuval Harari Kool-Aid. I in fact agree with those critics who observe that Harari commits a sort of implied Noble Savage Fallacy by suggesting that pre-agriculture society was vastly superior to the evils evident in a post-agricultural state. Ruthless tyrants indeed flourished in the Agriculture Age, but evil “shot-callers” have always been with us. Any microsociety has an Alpha who dominates the others. Where I agree with Harari is that the Agriculture Age scaled this evil because agriculture resulted in a population explosion. 

    Secondly, it is too late to fret over our morbidly obese, tooth-decayed post-Forager condition. The Genie is out of the bottle, so to speak. Rather than long to run through jungles in animal skins with our ripped bodies, we need to look at how we might flourish in a world sodden with mono-crops and a growing appetite for mass-produced animal flesh. Here, Harari argues that that A.I. might navigate us out of our self-destruction if we don’t kill ourselves first. 

    In sum, Harari’s Sapiens is a masterpiece, an unflinching critique of our violent and irrational appetites, our grand imagination, and our drive for dominance, which may or may not spell our demise. 

    How does the pre- agricultural period affect Sapiens today? 

    Gorging Gene

    Harari observes that “nearly entire history” of Sapiens is pre-agricultural society, also known as foraging society or hunting and gathering society.

    This historical period defines who we are today.

    After foraging, Sapiens lived for 10,000 years in Agricultural Age: farmers and herders.

    For only 200 years, we have lived in Industrial Age: urban laborers and office workers. 

    This foraging and need to survive famines have led to the gorging gene, the drive to overeat in order to stave off inevitable starvation.

    Gorging Gene in the Industrial Food Age (Processed Food and Fast Food = Death)

    For most of us in the world of Industrial Eating, starvation is not a problem we have the gorging gene and an abundance of food as we read in this Gorging Gene blog post. 

    Our gorging gene is traced to our need to eat before competing predators could eat our kill and our discovery of sweet fruit. Of course, now we’re maladapted to all the calorie-dense food produced in the Industrial Age. 

    We may be slighter dumber with slightly smaller brains than foragers because foragers had to have everyday survival skills and know how to work in the environment whereas we can be lazy slobs, turn on a light, turn on a computer, flip a switch, order a pizza, and watch Netflix (49). 

    In many ways, foragers had a “more comfortable and rewarding lifestyle” than industrial Sapiens. In affluent societies today, people work 45 hours a week with little free time and few friends, are full of stress, and overworked to deal with declining real wages. In developing countries, people today may work 80 hours a week and are essentially work bots. 

    In contrast, foragers had leisure time with one another and worked maybe 3-6 hours a day (50). 

    Foragers had a more diverse, nutritious diet as opposed to a diet of monocrops, same crops, and same food for farmers. Today, we load up on processed food and sugar. 

    Of course, Harari points out, foragers often led short, brutish lives, often rife with infanticide and similar atrocities, but on balance their lives could be richer and more affluent than the lifestyles of those in Agricultural and Industrial Periods. 

    Weakness in Harari's Argument?

    Yuval Noah Harari's claim is that the Agricultural Revolution is a crime and a fraud with ill effects in terms of morality and overall health. 

    One of the grounds for his claim is that our bodies became fat, afflicted with tooth decay, and crippled by spinal scoliosis after we left the Hunter-Gatherer stage. 

    Some Argumentation Terms

    The claim is the argument.

    Harari's claim is that the Agricultural Revolution was a disaster for the human race and inferior to the previous age of Hunters-Gatherers or Foragers. 

    On what grounds does he make his claim? The grounds is one of the reasons for offering concrete, logical support for a claim.

    One of his grounds is that after we abandoned hunting to become farmers and then eventually consumers, we suffered obesity, tooth decay, and scoliosis. 

    Argument's Against Harari's Claim:

    One. Is it logical to say that because the AR was a Hell 10 on the Hell Scale, that if Foragers were an 8 on the scale, we should admire foragers or look up to foragers as a superior lifestyle?

    Two. Is it logical to aspire to be ripped forager who suffers violent death at the age of 19 rather than be a fat farmer with cavities who dies of stroke at 60? 

    Three. We can concede that the abundance of available calories and the gorging gene lead to obesity, but is reverting the clock and reversing course to becoming Foragers the answer?

    Four. No one wants to have face long periods of starvation again. There is no emotional appeal to this argument. 

    Five. No one wants to devote their time and labor to hunting and gathering their food again.

    Six. It's too late to reverse the clock. The world population, at around 8 billion, cannot revert to foraging. 

    Seven. Only super rich people can afford a true organic quasi-Paleo diet in which they consume only finest ingredients for maximum performance. 

    Eight. All major technological breakthroughs are disruptive, which means they result in both good and bad things.

    For example, Facebook and other social media platforms brought a lot of friends and family together for convenient communication. However, these platforms can be addictive, lead to depression, and become vectors for fake news feeds, disrupting elections, and wreaking havoc on democratic societies. 

    Does this mean we're going to get rid of social media platforms? Of course not. The genie is out of the bottle. The toothpaste is out of the toothpaste tube. 

    Just because we face an overabundance of calories, does this mean we should subject ourselves once again to food scarcity so we can have trim waistlines? That is an utterly preposterous proposition. 

    Nine. It's stupid to tell the human race to abandon technological advancements and "go back to the cave."

    With that in mind, let's look at Choice D:

    Support, refute, or complicate Harari’s assertion that the “agricultural revolution was the greatest crime against humanity.”   

    Sapiens & The Agricultural Revolution

    Transition from Pre- agricultural period to Post-Agriculture

    Harari observes that “nearly entire history” of Sapiens is pre-agricultural society, also known as foraging society or hunting and gathering society. 

    This historical period defines who we are today.

    After foraging, Sapiens lived for 10,000 years in Agricultural Age: farmers and herders.

    For only 200 years, we have lived in Industrial Age: urban laborers and office workers. 

    Gorging Gene

    Our gorging gene is traced to our need to eat before competing predators could eat our kill and our discovery of sweet fruit. Of course, now we’re maladapted to all the calorie-dense food produced in the Industrial Age. 

    We may be slighter dumber with slightly smaller brains than foragers because foragers had to have everyday survival skills and know how to work in the environment whereas we can be lazy slobs, turn on a light, turn on a computer, flip a switch, order a pizza, and watch Netflix (49). 

    Agricultural Revolution (Farming) results in the following:

    Three. inferior health (tooth decay, curved spines, stunted growth)

    Five. more exploitation of women

    Six. higher population density with more spread of disease

    Seven class divisions: huge disparity between Haves and Have-Nots (economic stratification)

    Eight. animal cruelty on a mass scale (factory farming)

    Nine. More people bought into AR as best way of life possible in spite of contrary evidence because of powerful mythology of the "homeland" and other shared collective delusions of the imagination (thank you, Cognitive Revolution).

    Ten. Working harder to become a better person became the work ethic, all based on a lie. This is a way of gaslighting people into participating in their own exploitation (getting punked). 

    Faustian Bargain

    With all of these liabilities attached to AR, what is the appeal?

    Farming is sign of stupidity and de-evolution.

    According to Harari, farming is not a sign of intelligence and evolution. Farming is a sign of stupidity and de-evolution. 

    Keeping More People Alive in More Concentrated Areas Under Worse Conditions

    The appeal or Faustian Bargain of wheat is that it offered more “food per unit of territory” and therefore allowed massive population expansion of Sapiens (82). We read: “This is the essence of the Agricultural Revolution: The ability to keep more people alive under worse conditions.” 

    The Agricultural Revolution was not based on a legal fiction or a decision. The Agricultural Revolution was a “trap.” Harari calls it the “Luxury Trap.” I would call it the False Luxury Trap because I don't see any luxury. 

    In this trap, babies died more often from disease and malnutrition (less milk and more gruel) but so many more babies were being born that the population continued to grow. Yet life was brutal. In farming societies, 1 in 3 children died before turning 20. 

    Viruses spread more quickly in concentrated population centers.

    Critical Thinking Failure

    "Sapiens could not fathom the full consequences of their decisions" 

    Three. Why did Sapiens continue with the brutal farming life? 

    Sapiens “could not fathom the full consequences of their decisions.”

    Being unable to fathom the consequences of our decisions leads to our demise. Take, for example, that most people continue to use smartphones and social media without knowing the effects of these gadgets that are taking up so much of people’s time. Gadgets hack our brain to our loss of free will. 

    We cannot fathom:

    impact of agricultural revolution on us today

    impact of smartphones as a necessity

    impact of giving up our privacy through technology

    impact of giving up our free will to A.I. 

    impact of man-made global warming

    Harari succeeds in showing that Sapiens' greatest weakness is our failure to comprehend consequences of our actions

    Foragers Vs. People Today

    In many ways, foragers had a “more comfortable and rewarding lifestyle” than industrial Sapiens.

    In affluent societies today, people work 45 hours a week with little free time and few friends, are full of stress, and overworked to deal with declining real wages. In developing countries, people today may work 80 hours a week and are essentially work bots. 

    In contrast, foragers had leisure time with one another and worked maybe 3-6 hours a day (50). 

    Foragers had a more diverse, nutritious diet as opposed to a diet of monocrops, same crops, and same food for farmers. Today, we load up on processed food and sugar. 

    Of course, Harari points out, foragers often led short, brutish lives, often rife with infanticide and similar atrocities, but on balance their lives could be richer and more affluent than the lifestyles of those in Agricultural and Industrial Periods. 

    AR Myth Persists

    Can Myth of AR be eradicated by bloodshed or anything else? 

    Even after a tribe loses a war, it clings to its false myth. For example, Harari observes that the institution of slavery in the United States based on the myth of white supremacy resulted in the Civil War against forces that rejected the white supremacy myth, but even in the loss of the Civil War, many whites still proudly brandish the Confederate flag, venerate Confederate generals in the form of statues and monuments of various kinds, and hold white supremacy beliefs. Such people embrace what is called the false religion of The Lost Cause. Even after losing a war, such people cling to a racist ideology that gives them identity and meaning based on tribalistic narcissism. 

    Myths live because their adherents believe they come from God or are an “indisputable law of nature” or a necessary for keeping order or some other deeply held belief that the adherents share with their tribe. 

    Myths imbue the culture in the form of art, fairy tales, poetry, literature, TV, movies, etc. Look at the Jim Crow Museum on Youtube and you will find how white supremacy saturated American culture with myths of white superiority. 

    Dangerous Myths That Persist

    The American myth of the masculine pioneer creates a deeply seated love for guns that does not exist in any other country. 

    The American myth of “follow your passion” deludes Americans into believing they will have their “dream job” if they are simply “true to themselves and their real inner passion,” when in fact only about 2% of people have a career that could be called their dream job. Most people work jobs to support themselves and their families, and they make the best of it regardless of how unpleasant the job usually is. 

    The myth of consumerism tells us we cannot be happy unless we work our butts off to buy lots of stuff we don’t need, and the myth works because the majority of people go down Consumer Road and often die there. 

    The myth of consumerism has infected our notion of marriage so that we desire to experience our spouse as a “consumer experience,” and if the experience is less than our expectations dictate, we are entitled to seek a new consumer experience in the form of a new spouse until “we get it right.” 

    Imagined Orders

    What is the key question in understanding human history in the millennia after the Agricultural Revolution? 

    How did humans organize in mass cooperation networks when they lacked the biological instincts, such as ants and bees, to do so? 

    Humans created “imagined orders and devised scripts” (131). 

    These scripts created artificial hierarchies or economic and social stratification with Haves and Have-Nots, lords and serfs, royalty and peasants. 

    Harari breaks the system down into Superiors, Commoners, and Slaves, and this stratification was reinforced by some “divine code” or other. 

    People in power and privilege like to talk about “justice and equality” but only as a smokescreen in order to perpetuate their advantage over others. 

    Political and religious codes, Harari observes, are canards, deceptions, BS, that the powerful create to pacify and to shut up the masses. 

    These codes help maintain civil order and control, but they do little to help promote equality and justice.   

    Social codes, Harari observes, emphasize purity on one hand and pollution on the other. To scapegoat, marginalize, and eliminate a certain group of people (minorities, women, Jews, gays, to name a few Harari refers to on page 138), these people are dehumanized by the code. 

    Harari points out that the morally repulsive and abhorrent slave trade in America was supported by phony codes that supported ideas of white supremacy and black inferiority in order to get white people to cooperate with the evil system of slavery. 

    Harari further points out that many societies created codes that designated women as a man’s property. Universally speaking, humans have made man codes or patriarchal codes because, according one theory, men are more violent and aggressive (154). But in the end, Harari says no one theory can explain patriarchal systems. 

    Greatest Fraud

    How does Harari’s argument above support his larger argument that the Agricultural Revolution is the greatest fraud perpetrated on the human race? 

    Clearly, exploiting of the less fortunate is part of the social control and mass cooperation, and Hurari makes the case these codes did not exist in forager society rather, they flourished in the Agricultural Period.

    But Harari's hypocrisy is elevating Foragers to same mythic level as Farmers. 

    Support, refute, or complicate Harari’s assertion that the “agricultural revolution was the greatest crime against humanity.”  

    You need minimum 2 sources for your MLA Works Cited page.

    Sample Thesis and Outline

    Harari makes a persuasive case that the AR is inferior to the Forager Age evidenced by __________________, ________________, ____________________, and ______________________. 

    Paragraph 1: Introduction explains the differences between foragers and inhabitants of the AR.

    Paragraph 2: Thesis or claim

    Paragraphs 3-6: Supporting paragraphs

    Paragraph 7: Counterargument-rebuttal

    Paragraph 8: Conclusion is powerful restatement of thesis

    Sample Counterargument and Conclusion

    While I love Sapiens as a life-altering book on how I regard the human race, where we came from, where we are today, and where we are going, I am not totally drinking the Noah Yuval Harari Kool-Aid. I in fact agree with those critics who observe that Harari commits a sort of implied Noble Savage Fallacy by suggesting that pre-agriculture society was vastly superior to the evils evident in a post-agricultural state. Ruthless tyrants indeed flourished in the Agriculture Age, but evil “shot-callers” have always been with us. Any microsociety has an Alpha who dominates the others. Where I agree with Harari is that the Agriculture Age scaled this evil because agriculture resulted in a population explosion. 

    Secondly, it is too late to fret over our morbidly obese, tooth-decayed post-Forager condition. The Genie is out of the bottle, so to speak. Rather than long to run through jungles in animal skins with our ripped bodies, we need to look at how we might flourish in a world sodden with mono-crops and a growing appetite for mass-produced animal flesh. Here, Harari argues that that A.I. might navigate us out of our self-destruction if we don’t kill ourselves first. 

    In sum, Harari’s Sapiens is a masterpiece, an unflinching critique of our violent and irrational appetites, our grand imagination, and our drive for dominance, which may or may not spell our demise. 

    Counterarguments: Noble Savage Myth

    Possible counterarguments in Quillette: “ Romanticizing the Hunter-Gatherer ” by William Buckner

    Elsewhere, I wondered the extent to which Harari was projecting an idealistic (even Rousseauian) vision of a noble savage on pre-state peoples. His depiction of a foraging lifestyle (‘A Day in the Life of Adam and Eve’) unencumbered by the complexities and worries of civilisational living could be read as reactionary atavism. In this section, the bibliography and citations are also problematic, Harari makes claims for which it is difficult to trace a source. For example, he affirms that ‘loneliness and privacy were rare [amongst hunter gatherers]’ that the human population ‘was smaller than that of today’s Cairo’ that the ‘average ancient forager could turn a flint stone into a spear point within minutes’ and that ‘hunter gatherers living today… work on average for just thirty five to forty five hours a week’ (52-6). If sources for these claims exist, they are very difficult to correlate with the text.

    Signal Phrase Guidelines:

    About 80% of your essay should be written in your voice with your words.

    Another 20% of your essay will consist of quotations, paraphrase, and summary from the book Sapiens and credible source of your choice.  We call this "cited material."

    When you introduce your cited material, you must use signal phrases. 

    Sample List of Signal Phrases (active as of 2-29-20)

    When you cite material, paraphrases and summaries are with few exceptions superior to direct quotations. 

    You need minimum 2 sources for your MLA Works Cited page.

    Signal Phrases

    We use signal phrases to signal to the reader that we are going to cite research material in the form of direct quotes, paraphrase or summary.

    You can also call a signal phrase a lead-in because it leads in the quotation or paraphrase. 

    Grammarian Diana Hacker writes that signal phrases make smooth transitions from your own writing voice to the quoted material without making the reader feel a "jolt."

    Another Purpose: Providing Context

    Signal phrases not only establish authority and credibility. They provide context or explain why you're using the sourced material. 

    As a counterpoint to Yuval Noah Harari's contention that Foragers lived superior lives to Farmers, we read in culture critic Will Day Brosnan: "Elsewhere, I wondered the extent to which Harari was projecting an idealistic (even Rousseauian) vision of a noble savage on pre-state peoples. His depiction of a foraging lifestyle (‘A Day in the Life of Adam and Eve’) unencumbered by the complexities and worries of civilisational living could be read as reactionary atavism."

    Same Example with Different Context:

    Concurring with my assertion that Harari is misguided in his Noble Savage mythology, we read in culture critic Will Day Brosnan: "Elsewhere, I wondered the extent to which Harari was projecting an idealistic (even Rousseauian) vision of a noble savage on pre-state peoples. His depiction of a foraging lifestyle (‘A Day in the Life of Adam and Eve’) unencumbered by the complexities and worries of civilisational living could be read as reactionary atavism."

    Different Example for Supporting Paragraph

    Further supporting my contention that not all calories are equal, we find in science writer Gary Taubes' Good Calories, Bad Calories that there is statistics that show . . ."

    Credentials, Establishing Authority, and Ethos

    We often include credentials with the signal phrase to give more credibility for our sourced material. 

    The acclaimed best-selling writer, history professor, and futurist Yuval Noah Harari excoriates the Agricultural Revolution as "the greatest crime against humanity." 

    You don't have to put the signal phrase at the beginning. You can put it at the end:

    "The Agricultural Revolution is the greatest crime against humanity," claims celebrated author and futurist Yuval Noah Harari. 

    You can also put the signal phrase in the middle of a sentence:

    Racism, sexism, worker exploitation, and pestilence afflicted the human race during the Agricultural Revolution, claims celebrated futurist Yuval Noah Harari, who goes on to make the bold claim that "the Agricultural Revolution was the greatest crime perpetrated against humanity." 

    Partial List of Signal Phrases

    acknowledges  adds admits affirms agrees answers argues asserts claims comments concedes confirms contends counters counterattacks declares defines denies disputes echoes endorses estimates finds grants illustrates implies insists mentions notes observes predicts proposes reasons recognizes recommends refutes rejects reports responds reveals speculates states suggests surmises warns writes

    Varying placement and types of signal phrases helps you avoid monotony, makes you a more impressive writer, and gives you more ethos. 

    Examples of a signal phrases:

    We are fools if we think we were put on Planet Earth to be happy. That is the fantasy of a four-year-old child. Ironically, this infantile pursuit of happiness makes us unhappy. In the words of John Mellencamp : “I don’t think we’re put on this earth to live happy lives. I think we’re put here to challenge ourselves physically, emotionally, intellectually.”

    The idea of a meritocracy is that a healthy society allows people with merits, regardless of their economic privilege, to rise to the top of the power hierarchy. However, such a meritocracy does not exist as privilege, not merit, is the dominant force of acquiring power. As we read in Yale Law School professor Daniel Markovits' essay "How Life Became an Endless Terrible Competition" : " Harvard, Princeton, Stanford, and Yale collectively enroll more students from households in the top 1 percent of the income distribution than from households in the bottom 60 percent. Legacy preferences, nepotism, and outright fraud continue to give rich applicants corrupt advantages. But the dominant causes of this skew toward wealth can be traced to meritocracy. On average, children whose parents make more than $200,000 a year score about 250 points higher on the SAT than children whose parents make $40,000 to $60,000. Only about one in 200 children from the poorest third of households achieves SAT scores at Yale’s median. Meanwhile, the top banks and law firms, along with other high-paying employers, recruit almost exclusively from a few elite colleges."

    Variation of the above:

    The idea of a meritocracy is that a healthy society allows people with merits, regardless of their economic privilege, to rise to the top of the power hierarchy. However, such a meritocracy does not exist as privilege, not merit, is the dominant force of acquiring power. According to Yale Law School professor Daniel Markovits in his essay "How Life Became an Endless Terrible Competition" : "Harvard, Princeton, Stanford, and Yale collectively enroll more students from households in the top 1 percent of the income distribution than from households in the bottom 60 percent. Legacy preferences, nepotism, and outright fraud continue to give rich applicants corrupt advantages. But the dominant causes of this skew toward wealth can be traced to meritocracy. On average, children whose parents make more than $200,000 a year score about 250 points higher on the SAT than children whose parents make $40,000 to $60,000. Only about one in 200 children from the poorest third of households achieves SAT scores at Yale’s median. Meanwhile, the top banks and law firms, along with other high-paying employers, recruit almost exclusively from a few elite colleges."


    Call the dentist

    Until now, archaeologists have found that the oldest populations with lots of cavities were ones that ate domesticated wheat and barley. Such crops, especially when finely ground into porridges and breads, are much stickier and higher in sugar than wild fruits and grains. That makes them an ideal food source for cavity-causing bacteria, which produce acids that corrode tooth enamel as they digest carbohydrates.

    “But if this society lived too early to have relied on a domesticated crop, what could they have been eating that caused such high rates of tooth decay?” asks De Groote.

    The cave contained clues: the remains of pine nuts and sweet North African acorns. There were also remnants of grindstones that could have processed nuts into flat breads and sticky porridges.

    That could be the explanation. “A heavy reliance on certain plant foods well before people started to rely on cultivated plants could, in certain circumstances, lead to significant [tooth decay] levels,” says Marijke van der Veen of the University of Leicester, UK.

    The finding suggests that the transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a sedentary farming one may not have been as clear-cut as thought, says De Groote.


    How Having a Sweet Tooth Might Save Your Life

    Let's play Two Truths and a Lie . I'll give you three statements, and you decide which two are true and which is a lie:

    • Cavities are the world's most common chronic illness.
    • Nearly 1 billion people suffer from untreated oral disease globally.
    • Eating candy could save your life.

    Here's the answer: According to a recent study from the Queen Mary University of London, untreated cavities in adult teeth was the most common of an exhaustive 291 diseases and injuries assessed, affecting roughly 3.9 billion people globally. So, the first claim is correct, and the second is a lie (the number is actually closer to 4 billion, or 55 percent of the world population).

    Hold on -- does that mean I'm claiming that candy could save your life? The answer is yes. But not just any candy: a sugar-free chewing gum designed specifically to fight cavities. Here's how our team of five Ivy League students is taking on one of the world's biggest challenges using the world's simplest tool.

    In a world of superstar charity concerts, mass media apocalypse scares, and kitschy online campaigns for big-name diseases, tooth decay is a total underdog. For us in the United States, cavities are a small nuisance with a simple fix -- get a 4 o'clock penciled in with your dentist. But for most people, the experience is a far more serious affair entailing eroded teeth, constant pain, and absence from school or work. In the long run, such effects all serve to inhibit socio-economic mobility.

    Moreover, current research has discovered strong links between oral disease and more life-threatening conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's, and cancer. Just recently, the Mayo Clinic dubbed oral health "a window to your overall health," because of these unsettling links to many life-threatening conditions.

    So now the question is: What can be done about this pervasive problem? Our solution is chewing gum -- not that people should be chewing less of it, but that they should be chewing more of it.

    Specifically, we are interested in gum sweetened with Xylitol, a natural sugar-substitute synthesized from fruits and vegetables. A large body of research confirms that Xylitol gum inhibits the growth of cavity-causing bacteria, neutralizes pH in the mouth, increases flow of saliva, and helps remineralize teeth. Simply put, it is actively beneficial for oral health -- not just in terms of preventing cavities, but also in treating some small caries.

    So this brings us to our social venture: Sweets Bites. In one sentence, Sweet Bites produces Xylitol chewing gum, wrapped in packaging printed with health tips, and sold to kids living in urban slums.

    We hope to have an impact beyond oral health too. By bringing on local entrepreneurial women (many of whom already sell small goods) as brand ambassadors, we aim to create a community of knowledgeable advocates for dental health. And we expect that distributing this healthy gum will contribute significantly to their income. Moreover, actionable dental health messages are printed on our gum's wrappers. Think of it as the Snapple Facts of gum, but with key suggestions for maintaining a healthy mouth, instead of fun facts. With this bite -sized education, we're trying to close the information gap that prevents access to proper treatment and precludes awareness of health maintenance practices.

    After meeting with a healthcare policy expert at the University of Pennsylvania, one quote stuck in our minds: "When it comes to healthcare, free is not cheap enough." In the daily rigors of life in an urban slum, people don't have the time or the knowledge to manage their health problems -- even if treatment is free. Research in public health suggests that initiatives requiring a change in behavior of urban-slum populations are often ineffective. With Sweet Bites, we will present the people with a way to improve their oral health without changing their behavior in any material way. People love gum, and our solution is to employ this habit towards the improvement of oral health in urban slums.

    The Sweet Bites team is made up of a group of interdisciplinary students from the University of Pennsylvania. Collectively our team brings together experience from medical research, startup and entrepreneurial business, social impact consulting, and NGO work in the very same slums in which we are piloting this summer. Our team is comprised of captain Spencer Penn (Robotics Engineering, and Finance & Operations), Thoba Grenville-Grey (Philosophy, Politics, & Economics), Eric Kauderer-Abrams (Mathematics), Morgan Snyder (Digital Media and Design Engineering) and Joshua Tycko (Biological Mathematics). Beyond our passion about this problem, we are a group of best friends, excited to create a sustainable venture to fight tooth decay in perpetuity.

    As written by Benjamin Franklin, "The Tongue is ever turning to the aching Tooth." And for people living with tooth decay, it too can consume their entire attention. Treating tooth decay matters because of its huge impact on quality of life, long-term health implications, and the simplicity of this solution. Here's a chance to use something sweet to fight one of the world's most bitter problems.

    For more information or to support the project, please reach out to our Press Contact:

    This post was produced by The Huffington Post and the Hult Prize, where teams of college and university entrepreneurs compete for $1,000,000 in funding for compelling social business ideas. The posts are written by the "Big 6" competition finalists. To learn more about the 2014 Hult Prize, please visit here. Read all posts in the series here.


    CONTENTS

    I. Causes And Symptoms Of A Tooth Infection

    There are many triggering factors of a toot infection. They include:

    • Poor dental hygiene: If you do not clean the teeth properly, the foods as well as dental plaque will form an ideal environment for the bacteria causing tooth infections to grow.
    • Dental trauma: If a tooth is broken, the tooth enamel will be vulnerable, and bacteria can attack the pulp cavity, hence causing tooth decay and spreading the infection to the tooth’s root.
    • Tooth decay: People with tooth decay have higher risk of developing tooth infection.
    • Improper diet: People who consume too much sugar can have higher risks of developing decay tooth and tooth infection.
    • Poor immunity: People with diabetes or those who are performing radiation cancer treatment or those with other medical problems have higher risks of developing tooth infection.

    If you want to treat the tooth infection fast and naturally, you should not skip the following signs and symptoms of tooth infection. Some common symptoms of a tooth infection are:

    • A throbbing and sharp toothache
    • Pain when chewing food
    • Fever
    • Sensitivity to cold or hot food items
    • Bad breath
    • Red and sore gums
    • Change in taste senses
    • White pus around the root
    • Swelling in the cheek and face
    • Difficulty in opening the mouth and swallowing foods.

    If you notice any of the symptoms listed above, you should see a dentist as soon as possible. These symptoms can show that you are having a tooth infection. And if untreated, the infection can enter the jawbone, and other body’s parts.

    List of 35 Tips How To Stop A Toothache From A Broken Tooth Naturally will show you some of the best tips that can help you stop a toothache from a broken tooth fast, so check it it out!


    How can a root canal treated tooth develop a toothache?

    There are various ways a root canal treated tooth can start to hurt years after the endodontic procedure was completed. The problem may lie in the tooth itself or in the nearby teeth. Usually the problem is a recurring infection. It may also be a new infection. The problems which can cause a root canal treated tooth to hurt are:

    • The root canal treatment was incomplete and left living tissue behind: If there was some pulp left behind during the original root canal treatment, it could have gotten infected by a new bacterial invasion. The causes for pulp being left behind are manifold. It can be due to the root canals being complicated in shape, so that they all could not be reached by dental instruments during the root canal procedure. It could be due to the presence of accessory canals, which are extra branches in the root canal structure which may be missed during the root canal procedure.
    • The root canal treated tooth is cracked: As the living tissue of the tooth is removed during root canal treatment, the remaining tooth is dry and brittle. It may be that the tooth gets cracked due to a fall or other physical force years after the endodontic procedure was completed. This is more likely if the root canal treated tooth was not covered with a crown after the endodontic treatment, but can happen even with a crown present.
    • Leakage due to improper or breached seal: When the root canal procedure is carried out, part of a successful root canal treatment is making a seal between the root canal filling material and the remaining tissues of the tooth, so that there is no further bacterial invasion. If this seal is not properly achieved, it can leave room for a future bacterial invasion. If the seal is destroyed by tooth decay of the surrounding tissues, it can create a pathway for the bacteria to travel along and invade the tooth again, causing infection and pain.
    • Abscess or infection in a nearby tooth: If there is an infection or abscess in a nearby tooth, it can feel like the pain is coming from the root canal treated tooth. In some cases, the root infection may spread to include the tissues surrounding the root canal treated tooth and thereby involve the root canal treated tooth. In this way, even though the root canal treated tooth no longer contains dental pulp, the nearby teeth may harbor infection that sets off the decay process in the root canal treated tooth.
    • The crown covering the tooth is too high for your bite: If the crown on your root canal treated tooth gets loosened, it can start to interfere with your bite when you chew. In this way, it causes extra pressure on the tissues surrounding the tooth when you bite down. This causes pain to be felt in that tooth, which can develop into a toothache.

    7 Best Practices for Keeping Up With a Oral Hygiene Routine

    If you see anyone with sparkly white teeth and a beautiful smile, they probably have impeccable oral hygiene. Maintenance of oral hygiene implies keeping all parts of the oral cavity clean and preventing bacteria accumulation in the nooks and corners. If someone doesn’t do so, the chances of decay, infection if the gums and the premature loss of teeth are seen.

    To speak in very basic terms, the food that you eat acts as a substrate for the bacteria that exist in your mouth. They digest the food and produce a form of acid that is responsible for causing all the aforementioned issues. Therefore, oral hygiene maintenance entails reducing the pathogenic load in the mouth and flushing away and neutralizing the acid that is inadvertently produced. Here are a few important methods of doing so.

    Use proper brushing technique

    Brushing is probably one of the most important as well as basic things that one does every day. The question is, how many of you brush twice daily. Dentists recommended brushing once in the morning and once at night using a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoridated toothpaste. The proper technique is also important. You should not brush horizontally and with force.

    Instead, it would be best to go for a circular motion followed by vertical swipes at the end. Make sure you reach out to all the surfaces of the teeth each time you brush. You should not brush more than 2-3 minutes at one go. If you have brushing for 5-10 minutes, thinking that it is better for your teeth, you are doing more harm than good.

    Floss properly

    Flossing is another important yet most commonly ignored method for the maintenance of oral hygiene. Many studies have proven that decay generally starts from the area in between or the side of the tooth because food gets impacted there, and the bristles are unable to reach it. Flossing using a special medical-grade waxed thread can be used to ensure that the impacted food is taken out before the harm starts.

    Use a tongue scraper

    One of the main reasons why people have bad breath, and they don’t really realize is because of the deposits that are present on the tongue. Scientifically, it is called tongue plaque that accumulates over a period of time. You can use a tongue scraper periodically to prevent this from happening. Do not be too vigorous in using it, though. Be gentle but effective.

    Limit sugary food and starches

    As mentioned before, the food you eat acts as a nutrition source for the pathogens in your mouth. This is even more compounded when the food is sugary and full of starches. These are the favorite food for the bacteria as they are easily broken down, and the acid production is maximum. Therefore, avoid it as much as you can. Replace it with fruits and water if you have a sweet tooth and can’t stay away from it. A healthy alternative is considered to be adequate in this scenario. Drinking too much tea and coffee with sugar can also be a problem. Instead, switch to kratom, the best alternative beverage available in the market. Big bear kratom is a good option for the same.

    Eat teeth-whitening foods

    The food is not always the culprit, though. There are some specific types of foods that aid in the maintenance of oral hygiene as well. They are rich in fiber content and have a coarse texture that can remove whatever plaque and debris get accumulated on the tooth surface. Celery and other types of cereals are good examples of it. Thus, the formation of yellowish deposition on the teeth is prevented by this.

    Photo by Andrea Piacquadio from Pexels

    Add mouthwash and gum to your routine

    There are some additional aids for maintaining oral hygiene, mainly in the form of mouthwash and gums. Swishing with the right mouthwash can clean the most unreachable of areas in the mouth and keep the oral cavity sanitized. However, it is not a good idea to use mouthwash daily.

    Use it from time to time and as and when required. Some gums are enhanced with fluoride and other substances that prevent the formation of decay easily. You can chew on them periodically.

    Visit your dentist regularly

    Lastly, the most crucial method to maintain oral hygiene is to take expert advice. Therefore, plan an appointment with your dentist at least once in 6 months. They will review your oral hygiene status and suggest appropriate treatment and play a role in early diagnosis and prevention of some decay that might have set in. You get a comprehensive cosmetic dentistry treatment from a dentist.

    It must have become clear that the maintenance of oral hygiene can be an essential factor for oral health and the subsequent systemic health. The methods mentioned above will help to ensure that.


    Lots of studies have shown it is not necessarily the AMOUNT of sugar you have, but rather how FREQUENTLY you have it. Crazy isn’t it? This is because when you frequently consume sugar throughout the day, you are not giving your saliva enough time to replenish itself and buffer the mouth from the acidity created from consuming sugar. So my third tip is: if you are going to have sugary foods and drinks, try and consume them during or after a main meal. Once you have had the sugary meal or drink then that is it. The rest of the day, make sure you are having lots of veggies, protein and water.

    I hope you have found this blog helpful. If you need a caring dentist that won’t make you feel bad about having a sweet tooth, then give my team a call at Riverstone Family Dental on 8678 3538 .


    Watch the video: STONE AGE - Stone Age - Yesterdays Child


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