Mount Nemrut and the God King of Commagene

Mount Nemrut and the God King of Commagene

Mount Nemrut ( Nemrut Dagi in Turkish) is a monumental site belonging to the Kingdom of Commagene, a small, independent Armenian kingdom that was formed in 162 B.C. This was a period during which the once mighty Seleucid Empire was beginning to disintegrate, allowing certain areas of its empire to break free from the centralised control of the Seleucids. Located in the eastern Taurus mountain range in southern Turkey, near the town of Adiyaman, Mount Nemrut is home to an ancient complex built by the fourth, and arguably the most famous, king of Commagene, Antiochus I Theos (the ‘God King’).

King Antiochus I, ruler of Commagene from 70 BC to 36BC, was a most unusual king. He claimed descent from Greek conqueror Alexander the Great on his mother’s side, and from the Persian King Darius the Great on his father’s side, thus combining the west and the east. But what was particularly salient about this king was his unerring pride and his over-extended ego. Antiochus I claimed he had a special relationship with the gods and instituted a royal cult in the Greek form of the religion Zoroastrianism with the clear intention of being worshipped as a god after his death.

King Antiochus I practised astrology of a very esoteric kind, and laid the basis for a calendrical reform, by linking the Commagene year, which till then had been based on the movements of the Sun and Moon, to the Sothic-Anahit (Star of Sirius) and Hayk (Star of Orion) cycle used by the Egyptians as the basis of their calendar. This would suggest that Antiochus was knowledgeable about, if not fully initiated into Hermeticism.

Antiochus commissioned the construction of a magnificent religious sanctuary on Mount Nemrut (Nemrud Dagi), a 2,100 metre high mountain where people could come and pray to him. Antiochus wanted his sanctuary to be in a high and holy place, close to the gods in order to be in rank with them, and high enough that the whole kingdom could see it and remember him. The tomb-sanctuary was built in 62 BC and consists of a pyramid-shaped mound of stone chips with a diameter of 145 m and was 50 m in height. Two antique processional routes radiate out from the east and west terraces. The scale of this structure and the amount of labour that was required to build it are impressive on their own. Nevertheless, it is the cultural assimilation reflected in this monument that sets it apart from most other superstructures.

Statue heads atop Mount Nemrut. Photo source: BigStockPhoto

Antiochus himself called Mount Nemrut the hierothesion, or the ‘common dwelling place of all the gods next to the heavenly thrones’. This attempt to gather all the known gods on Mount Nemrut can be seen on the eastern and western terraces of the mound. On the eastern terrace of Mount Nemrut, there is a row of five colossal limestone statues. An identical row of statues can be found on the western terrace. These seated statues face outwards from the tumulus, and are flanked by a pair of guardian animal statues – a lion on one end and an eagle on the other. An inscription refers to the summit as a sacred resting place where Antiochus, the ‘God King’ would be laid to rest and his soul would join those of other deities in the celestial realm.

Well preserved statues remaining on Mount Nemrut. Source: BigStockPhoto

Based on the inscriptions at their bases, the statues have been identified as representing Antiochus I himself, the All-Nourishing Commagene, Zeus-Oromasdes, Apollo-Mithras-Helios-Hermes and Artagnes-Herakles-Ares. The statue of Antiochus I shows that the Hellenistic ruler cult was adopted by the Commagenian king. This adoption of Hellenistic religious practice is reinforced by the presence of standard Hellenistic deities such as Zeus, Apollo and Ares. Yet, at the same time, Eastern deities, such as Oromasdes and Mithras are merged with their Hellenistic counterparts. Thus, one is able to see that Antiochus I was attempting to achieve a kind of religious syncretism. Antiochus I’s effort to bring together East and West can also be seen in the two rows of sandstone stelae mounted on pedestals. On one row of stelae, relief sculptures of Antiochus’ paternal Persian ancestors can be seen, while the other row of stelae depicts his maternal Macedonian ancestors. Thus, Antiochus was able to use his illustrious genealogy to justify his claim to the Commagenian throne. Perhaps the building on Mount Nemrut was an effort by Antiochus to solidify his reign and that of his successors.

Row of stelae on Mount Nemrut. Photo source: MTM Holidays

Antiochus instructed that every year after his death, great festivities would be held at the sanctuary – his birthday was celebrated on the 16th of each month and his coronation was celebrated on the 10th of each month. Priests appointed by Antiochus made offerings and conducted ‘splendid sacrifices’ on altars to honour the illustrious king. Antiochus’ sanctuary was forgotten for centuries, until it was re-discovered by a German archaeologist in 1883. In 1987, Mount Nemrut was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site, so that it could protected and preserved for the years to come, something that Antiochus would presumably be very pleased about!

Featured image: Some of the heads of the colossal statues at Mount Nemrut with the mound in the background . Photo source: UNESCO.org.

By Ḏḥwty

References

Learning Sites, Inc., 1996. Nemrut Dagi, Turkey. [Online]
Available at: http://www.learningsites.com/NemrutDagi/nemdagi-2.htm

Jacobs, B., 2011. Nemrut Daği. [Online]
Available at: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/Nemrut-dagi

UNESCO, 2014. Nemrut Dağ. [Online]
Available at: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/448

Wikipedia, 2014. Kingdom of Commagene. [Online]
Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commagene

Wikipedia, 2014. Mount Nemrut. [Online]
Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Nemrut


Mount Nemrut

Mount Nemrut or Nemrud (Turkish: Nemrut Dağı Kurdish: Çiyayê Nemrûdê ‎ Armenian: Նեմրութ լեռ ) is a 2,134-metre-high (7,001 ft) mountain in southeastern Turkey, notable for the summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC. It is one of the highest peaks in the east of the Taurus Mountains.

It was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987.


Mount Nemrut and the God King of Commagene

Mount Nemrut is a monumental site belonging to the Kingdom of Commagene, a small, independent Armenian kingdom that was formed in 162 B.C. This was a period during which the once mighty Seleucid Empire was beginning to disintegrate, allowing certain areas of its empire to break free from the centralised control of the Seleucids. Located in the eastern Taurus mountain range in southern Turkey, near the town of Adiyaman, Mount Nemrut is home to an ancient complex built by the fourth, and arguably the most famous, king of Commagene, Antiochus I Theos (the ‘God King’).

King Antiochus I, ruler of Commagene from 70 BC to 36BC, was a most unusual king. He claimed descent from Greek conqueror Alexander the Great on his mother’s side, and from the Persian King Darius the Great on his father’s side, thus combining the west and the east. But what was particularly salient about this king was his unerring pride and his over-extended ego. Antiochus I claimed he had a special relationship with the gods and instituted a royal cult in the Greek form of the religion Zoroastrianism with the clear intention of being worshipped as a god after his death.

King Antiochus I practised astrology of a very esoteric kind, and laid the basis for a calendrical reform, by linking the Commagene year, which till then had been based on the movements of the Sun and Moon, to the Sothic-Anahit (Star of Sirius) and Hayk (Star of Orion) cycle used by the Egyptians as the basis of their calendar. This would suggest that Antiochus was knowledgeable about, if not fully initiated into Hermeticism.

Antiochus commissioned the construction of a magnificent religious sanctuary on Mount Nemrut (Nemrud Dagi), a 2,100 metre high mountain where people could come and pray to him. Antiochus wanted his sanctuary to be in a high and holy place, close to the gods in order to be in rank with them, and high enough that the whole kingdom could see it and remember him. The tomb-sanctuary was built in 62 BC and consists of a pyramid-shaped mound of stone chips with a diameter of 145 m and was 50 m in height. Two antique processional routes radiate out from the east and west terraces. The scale of this structure and the amount of labour that was required to build it are impressive on their own. Nevertheless, it is the cultural assimilation reflected in this monument that sets it apart from most other superstructures.

Antiochus’ sanctuary was forgotten for centuries, until it was re-discovered by a German archaeologist in 1883.


Kommagene History Before Antiochus

Located at a geography that has an importance strategically and for its natural sources, it is possible to see settlements since Paleolithic Age in ancient history of Kommagene Kingdom.

Mentioned and praised couple of times in Assyrian Trade Colonies tablets as well, its surroundings and a part of Syrica bordering today’s Turkey, was under the reign of Hittite Empire after Kummuh Kingdom. No matter how good they kept the relations with Hittites after Kummuh Kingdom was awakened by 1000 B.C, its preminence was ended again by Assyrian Trade Colonies by around 700 B.C.

Until Persian Empire, It slightly got rather underdeveloped once it was under the reign of Babylon King Napupolassar around back in 600 B.C in art, society and cultural factors. Even if we don’t have a great idea to which mayor of Persia it really belong, we can say that they had a higher class life for a longer while.

Upon Alexander The Great’s defeating the Persian Empire, Greek culture gained the sovereignty in the region which brought more enrichness in terms of the cultural values and varities to build up such a great mosaic.

The mayor of Seleukos started a rebellion in 160’s B.C, declaring the independence of Kommagene Kingdom and naming the ancient Kummuh Samosata as the capital city. While it was not a super powerful political kingdom within those ages, it did protect its freedom for a long while and those kings after himself Arsemas II and Samos carried on the customs and traditions. Symbolizing the kingdom of those times, the most important records are the coins which were depicted with Persian dressing and the relief of Samos II raised up around 4 meters on a rock at Gerger Castle.

The chronolohy followed for another decade until the voice of local authorities was taken away by the Armenian King Tigranes II which would last till 69 B.C when King Antiochos I ascended the throne.


The Gods of Mount Nemrut – The most valuable monument of the Kingdom of Commagene

Mount Nemrut, also called Mount Nemrud, is a 2,134-metre-high (7,001 ft) mountain located in southeastern Turkey famous for the giant head statues scattered on the summit.

It is the site of extensive ruins of the tomb of Antiochus I (69-36 BC) of the Commagene Kingdom (163 BC – 72 AD).

A mountain adorned with the fragments of vast statues built over 2000 years ago.Author: Klaus-Peter Simon CC BY SA 3.0

Built by King Antiochus I in 62 BC it is thought to be a sanctuary and a royal tomb. Author: Klearchos Kapoutsis CC BY2.0

This spectacular structure is made of large slabs of rock forming a pyramid-like configuration. The stone sculptures once stood nearly 10 meters high and depicted lions, eagles, various ancient gods.

Antiochus I himself is represented here as well. Sixty-two years before the birth of Christ, King Antiochus I ordered a huge tomb come sanctuary to be built for himself.

Heads of statues at the top of the mountain. Author: Urszula Ka CC BY SA 3.0

Persian Eagle God. Author: Klearchos Kapoutsis CC BY2.0

Lion’s head. The Lion was the sacred animal of the Commagene Kingdom. Author: Klearchos Kapoutsis CC BY2.0

What was particularly notable about this king was his pride and his over-extended ego. Antiochus I claimed he had a special relationship with the gods and instituted a royal cult in the Greek form of the religion Zoroastrianism with the clear intention of being worshiped as a god after his death.

He wanted his sanctuary to be in a high and holy place, close to the gods in order to be in rank with them, and high enough that the whole kingdom could see it and remember him.

Heads of Antiochus I Theos of Commagene and Zeus Oromasdes. Author: Author: Klearchos Kapoutsis CC BY2.0

Left – Zeus Oromasdes. Right – Heracles Artagnes Ares. Author: Klearchos Kapoutsis CC BY2.0

King Antiochus’ burial complex, now known as Mount Nemrut Archaeological Site, was first rediscovered in 1881 by Karl Sester, a German Archaeologist, but archaeological activity only began in 1953.

In 1984, German archaeologists, under the direction of Friedrich Karl Dörner of the University of Münster, began to survey and restore the monuments. Since the start of excavation, most of the heads have been found, in addition to temples, bas-reliefs, and inscriptions.

The pattern of damage to the heads suggests that they were deliberately damaged because of belief in iconoclasm. Author: Klearchos Kapoutsis CC BY2.0

The statues appear to have Greek-style facial features, but Persian clothing and hairstyling. Author: Onur Kocatas CC BY SA 3.0

A Greek inscription reveals that King Antiochus was buried here at the roof of his world as a sign of his parity with the gods.

The burial chamber of Antiochus has not yet been found, but is nevertheless still believed to be the site of his burial.

Goddess of Kommagene. Author: Klearchos Kapoutsis CC BY2.0

The statues have not been restored to their original positions. Author: onur kocatas CC BY SA 3.0

A highly developed technology was used to build the colossal statues and orthostats (stelae), the equal of which has not been found anywhere else for this period.

The statues, all of them “beheaded”, have not been restored to their original condition, but the remains give some idea of the size and grandeur of Antiochus’ magnificent structure.

Now only miniature sculptures provide the idea of the original statues.

Head of Zeus-Oromasdes statue. Author: China_Crisis CC BY SA 3.0

Souvenirs. Author: Klearchos Kapoutsis CC BY2.0

The sculpture, temples, inscriptions, and reliefs at Antiochus’ sacred mortuary complex are highly significant to archaeologists and scholars of Roman, Persian, Hellenistic, and Anatolian history.


Contents

The ancient town of Nymphaios was renamed Arsameia in the third century BCE by the Armenian king Arsames (255–225 BCE). It was then taken in 235 BCE by the Seleukid Antiochus Hierax who was fleeing from his brother Seleucus II, who was later claimed as an ancestor by the Commagenian King Antiochus I. The city had already been abandoned again by Roman times, stones from local graves were used by Roman soldiers or building bridges. [1]

The Greek word hierothesion (ἱεροθέσιον) is term for the holy burial areas of those belonging to the royal house, and is only known from Commagene. Apart from the Hierothesion which Antiochos himself built on Nemrut Dağı, and the second one on Karakuş which his son Mithridates II built for the female members of the royal house, a third is to be found in Arsameia, the burial site and the associated cultic area for Antiochus' father Mithridates. A processional way leads up the mountain in the form of a Z and passes three sites which its discoverer Friedrich Karl Dörner marked as Sites I–III. At the first of these, Site II, stands the fragment described as the Mithras relief. It is the right hand side of a dexiosis, which shows Antiochos or Mithridates shaking hands with the sun god Mithras. Antiochus and those associated with him depicted themselves as being on the same level as the gods through these representations which are distributed throughout Commagene. Dörner was able to re-erect the upper and lower halves of Mithras, of the left-hand side of the relief only part of a shoulder was found, which Dörner however identified with one of the kings due to its clothing.

On the first bend of the path is located Site I. Here too can be seen the remains of the depiction of a dexiosis, in which the portraits can no longer be identified. In addition to this there is a hallway carved into the rock, from which 14 steps lead up to a further room, nine meters high and about eight by eight meters in size. The function of this is not clear Dörner took it to be a temple to Mithras, while other archaeologists conjecture that it could be the burial site of Mithridates.

The path leads on further to Site III. Here on a wall of rock was found an inscription of Antiochos in five columns, in which he relates the story of how the city was founded and the building of the Hierothesion as well as detailed instructions about how to carry out the rites that needed to be performed. Since the inscription had been almost completely covered in earth from ancient times it is still in an amazing condition. In the lower part of the inscribed wall a walkway begins that goes steeply up the rock and then suddenly ends after 158 metres. Nothing is known about its purpose. Above the wall stands the best preserved dexiosis relief of Commagene. It shows one of the two kings, either Antiochos or Mithridates shaking hands with a naked Herakles, recognizable from his club.

The processional way leads further beyond this site as far as the summit of the mountain. There was found the foundations of buildings with mosaic flooring, which can be dated back to the Second Century before Christ. On the basis of fragments of sculpture Dörner takes it that this is where the mausoleum of Mithridates stood, decorated with statues.

About two kilometers away, on the other side of the Kahtaçay, lies the fortress of Yenikale ("New Castle"). Here according to the inscription at Site III lay the Palace buildings of the Commagenian rulers. Today one can see a Mameluke castle. In its interior are found building and restoration inscriptions from the sultans Qala'un (1279–90), Al-Ashraf Khalil (1290–93) and al-Nasir Muhammad (1293–1341). An earlier building had already been conquered and destroyed in 1286 by Kara Sonkar, the governor of Aleppo. A path leads from the lower part of the castle on the side of the river to a building known as the "Pigeon Castle", which is positioned under an overhanging ledge of rock. It was used to provide water to the castle, as well as relaying it over a bridge to the Eski Kale. On the top floor is a room set up as a homing pigeon house, with a rectangular hole entry hole and 32 nesting niches. It was still being used for communications as late as the 13th century when the Sultan Qala'un was seeking information about the troop movements of the hostile Ilkhanate before the Second Battle of Homs. [2]

To the west of the two mountains of Yenikale and Eskikale Dörner and his colleague Wilhelm Winkelmann discovered an area of iron smelting, the first in Commagene. The remains of furnace walls, bits of slag, salamanders (the remains of pig iron left when smelting), as well as sharp pieces and coins. [3]

During the course of investigations at Nemrut Dağı in 1951 Dörner's was drawn by a local to the "Picture Stone". After careful examination this proved to be the relief representing Mithras from Site II. When he later found the inscriptional wall of Site III, which he could read straight away thanks to its excellent state of preservation, he was able to identify the site as the Commagenian royal seat of Arsameia. In 1953 he undertook the first excavations. Along with the American Theresa Goell he uncovered between the years 1953–56 the finds that are visible today. From 1963 further excavations took place. Some of the finds are now exhibited in the Archaeological Museum at Gaziantep.


SH Archive Mount Nemrut: Throne of the Gods

This morning while reading over this fantastic thread I started to look at old newspaper clippings of Petra and stumbled across another 8th wonder of the world that I have never seen or heard of. Mount Nemrut.

Mount Nemrut is an awe inspiring and enigmatic place located on one of the highest peaks of the Eastern Taurus mountain range, at an altitude of over 2,000 m above sea level, in south-east Turkey.

We know this ancient place as Nemrut Dagi - the Hierotheseion (temple-tomb and house of thracese gods) built by the late Hellenistic King Antiochos I of Commagene (69-34 BC) as a monument to himself.
The unique mountain top shrine was completely unknown to all until its discovery in 1881 by German engineer Karl Sester. At the time of the discovery, the megalithic statues were said to be intact. Archaeological excavations began for the first time in 1953 when the American School of Oriental Research conducted precise surveys of the site.

With a diameter of 145 m, the 50 m high funerary mound of stone chips is surrounded on three sides by terraces to the east, west and north directions. Two separate antique processional routes radiate from the east and west terraces.
Antiochus I's sanctuary is flanked by huge statues 8-9 m (26-30 ft) high of himself, two lions, two eagles and various Greek, Armenian, and Iranian gods, such as Vahagn-Hercules, Aramazd-Zeus or Oromasdes (associated with the Iranian god Ahura Mazda), Bakht-Tyche, and Mihr-Apollo-Mithras.

According to this documentary, during the expedition they uncovered inscriptions written in Greek that identified the figures as various gods as well as the author who preserved his own image. However, the first lines of text containing that individual's identity were illegible. But by combining the other inscriptions that they found, they were able to conclude this mount was built by King Antiochos I of Commagene. Not to be confused with Antiochus I Soter.

Antiochos, a just, eminent god, friend of Romans and friend of Greeks, c. 86 BC – 38 BC, ruled 70 BC – 38 BC) was an Armenian king from the Kingdom of Commagene and the most famous king of that kingdom.

The ruins of the tomb-sanctuary of Antiochus atop Mount Nemrut in Turkey were added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1987. Several sandstone bas reliefs discovered at the site contain some of the oldest known images of two figures shaking hands.


Antiochus I of Commagene, shaking hands with Heracles, 70–38 BC, Arsameia

There wouldn't be a more surreal handshake until 2000 years later when Elvis met Nixon.

While the Roman Republic was annexing territories in Anatolia, Antiochus, through skilled diplomacy, was able to keep Commagene independent from the Romans. Antiochus is first mentioned in the ancient sources in 69 BC, when Lucullus campaigned against the Armenian King Tigranes the Great. Antiochus made peace with the general Pompey in 64 BC, when Pompey successfully invaded Syria. Antiochus and Pompey then became allies. Antiochus in 59 BC was granted the toga praetexta and given official recognition from the Roman Senate as an ally to Rome. Antiochus received an ivory sceptre and an embroidered triumphal robe, and he was greeted as "king, ally and friend". This recognition was a traditional way of recognising and rewarding the allies to Rome. From his reign onwards, monarchs from Commagene proved to be the most loyal Roman allies. When Marcus Tullius Cicero was Roman governor of Cilicia in 51 BC, Antiochus provided Cicero with intelligence of the movements of the Parthians. During the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey, Antiochus provided troops for Pompey.

In 38 BC, a legate of Triumvir Mark Antony, Publius Ventidius Bassus, after campaigning against the Parthians, wanted to attack Antiochus and his kingdom. Antony and Bassus were attracted by Commagene's wealth. Yet as they were preparing to march against Commagene and its capital Samosata, Antiochus negotiated a peaceful settlement with them.

Let's just say this guy had quite the handshake.


Antiochus I Theos of Armenian kingdom of Commagene, wearing an Armenian tiara depicting the coat of arms of Artashes (Artaxiad) dynasty (Circa 69-34 BC).

Antiochus is famous for building the impressive religious sanctuary of Nemrud Dagi or Mount Nemrut. When Antiochus reigned as king he was creating a royal cult for himself and preparing to be worshipped after his death. Antiochus was inspired to create his own cult in the Greek form of the religion Zoroastrianism. Antiochus left many Greek inscriptions revealing many aspects of his religion and explaining his purpose of action. In one inscription, Antiochus directed that his tomb should be built in a high and holy place, remote from people and close to the gods, among whom he would be numbered. Antiochus wanted his body to be preserved for eternity. The gods he worshipped were a syncretism of Greek, Armenian, and Iranian gods, such as Hercules-Vahagn, Zeus-Aramazd or Oromasdes (associated with the Iranian god Ahura Mazda), Tyche, and Apollo-Mithras. The monumental effigies at the site show both Persian and Greek iconographic influences: Persian influences can be seen in the clothes, headgear and the colossal size of the images, while the depiction of their physical features derives from Greek artistic style.

Antiochus’ tomb was forgotten for centuries, until 1883 when archaeologists from Germany excavated it. According to the inscriptions found, Antiochus appears to have been a pious person and had a generous spirit. The ruins of the royal palace have been found in another city of the kingdom, Arsameia. This palace is known as Eski Kale or 'Old Castle'. In Arsameia, Antiochus has left many inscriptions in Greek of his public works program and how he glorified the city.


Founded in the 3rd century BC, this cult and burial site in Mt. Nemrut National Park was the summer residence of the Commagene rulers. In addition to the remains of steps and buildings on the summit plateau (with mosaics from the 2nd century BC), there are a number of reliefs and rock-chambers on the way up to the top.

The first large stele relief depicts the god Mithras-Helios, while the middle relief shows the Commagene King Mithridates and his son Antiochus I. From here, there is a rock tunnel leading to a burial chamber. A further relief depicts Mithridates shaking hands with the demigod Hercules.

This source claims it is Mithridates shaking hands with Hercules but there are said to be several. Might be a mistake but just noting it.

These statues were once seated, with names of each god inscribed on them. Later, the heads of the statues have been removed from their bodies and most likely deliberately damaged (especially their noses). Today they are found scattered throughout the site but they have never been restored to their original locations. Additionally, after numerous earthquakes and devastation, the stone heads that look as if they have been cut off from the trunk.

The site also preserves stone slabs with bas-relief figures that are thought to have formed a large frieze. These slabs display the ancestors of Antiochus, who included Armenians, Greeks and Persians. The Hierotheseion of Antiochos I is one of the most ambitious constructions of the Hellenistic period.

A highly developed technology was used to build the colossal statues and stelae, the equal of which has not been found anywhere else for this period. The syncretism of its pantheon and the lineage of its kings, which can be traced back through two sets of legends, Greek and Persian, is evidence of the dual origin of this kingdom's culture.

This is admittedly built with technology not found anywhere else during the same period. Which really begs the question does this belong to the time period they have ascribed it to? Fortunately, the builders left us a clue on the west terrace.


According to Fomenko:

This is an obvious zodiac with a horoscope. We will abbreviate it as LK.

Historians who have studied this relief write: “A lion is depicted, one of the zodiacal signs . and three planets above it” [15], p.166. However, historians, apparently, did not bother to conduct astronomical calculations in order to determine the date recorded on this zodiac. It is believed that so-and-so is “reliably known from historical considerations” that the “Leo Commagens” was made allegedly in “very ancient” times, and it features the horoscope of Antiochus I, the king of Commagens, allegedly born in 98 BC.

However, in this case “historical considerations” mean, in essence, nothing more than a chronological version of Scaliger-Petavius. Or its consequences. As we know, this version contains deep contradictions and requires a complete revision of [ХРОН1] - [ХРОН3], [АНХ], [НХЕ].

Therefore, we turn to the zodiac itself in order to calculate the date recorded on it, regardless of Scaligerian chronology.

I will skip ahead and present you with the possible dates he came up with:

We have already met with this horoscope in our study of the Egyptian zodiacs (see above and [НХЕ]). The same horoscope was discovered in the unfinished tomb of Senenmouth near the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. And also - on the Metternich stela. All the necessary astronomical calculations relating to this horoscope, we have already been done. Now it remains only to use them again.

The horoscope "all planets in Leo" has five solutions in the interval from -3000 to +2000 AD:

I really want to give a sense of scale here and also show you some more images before moving on.

Is the cage supposed to protect this?



Picture from New Earth's youtube channel.


Sense of the height and view.

Are ancient secrets hidden inside the mountain? Archaeologists believe that the mound hides the tomb of King Antioch, but they are not entirely convinced. In addition, there are numerous legends about the treasure hidden on the top of the mountain.

However, the truth regarding both the tomb and possible treasures has not been revealed during archaeological studies lasting for more than half a century. Even the use of dynamite, which only lowered the mound by 5 m, did not reveal anything of value.

Archaeologists have found an ancient glass shaft, which according to experts indicates a unique knowledge of advanced astronomy of people of that period. It runs towards the slope at an angle of 35 degrees and is about 150 meters long. Computer analysis has shown that two days of the year, the sun’s rays would illuminate the bottom of the shaft - once when in line with the constellation of Leo and another time when in line with Orion.

Okay, so naturally I looked for a Nimrut/Nimrod connection simply because of the phonetic similarity and Orion/Hunter connection.
Then I started thinking about the mound of stone shards and obviously wondered if there wasn't originally some large structure.
Like some sort of tower that got destroyed and reduced to sand.

The only thing I found on wiki was someone's comment:

This person made the claim it is actually Nimrod depicted here

On the West Terrace of Mount Nimrod (or NemrutDagi), sunset light falls on a 40-ton head of Greek god “Zeus” (Nimrod according to Turkish people) capped with a Persian tiara.

About 447 KM away is Nimrut Volcano

Etymology
Locals link the name of the volcano with the legendary ruler Nimrod, who is credited with the construction of the Tower of Babel. Turkish chronicles of the 16th century reproduce a local legend as follows:

Important points and closing thoughts:
This is supposed to be a burial site and Antiochus is believed to be mummified below but nobody has bothered looking yet. because the archeologists are not entirely convinced.

Once again we see the recurring theme where a site went undiscovered for a long period of time as this site was not rediscovered until 1881 or 1883 depending on the source. (similar situation: Pompeii)

During that expedition or as a result of it they were able to piece together who built this hill and when. And why.
Excavations didn't start until 1953.

The techniques do not match with the techniques used during the period this site has been dated by archaeologists. They openly admit this since there is no good explanation.
The dates don't appear to match the constellation inscription on the lion according to Fomenko.

Based on the research done by others on this site I don't really believe the mound of stone shards was the original blueprint.
The builders displayed precise knowledge of astronomy judging how the glass shaft was built.
Could it have originally been a temple, a tower, a pyramid? Or has it always looked this way?

I will not add more speculation because I am excited to hear other opinions!

I hope you have enjoyed learning about this location as much as I have. Thank you for reading and, of course, thank you to the original authors and researchers.

Archive

SH.org Archive

Since coming here I have become more wary about artifacts being what we are told they are, thanks everyone, so in that light I went looking for black and white aka film photographs of the site on duckduckgo. There don't appear to be any.
So using the google translate I found the Persian name for the site on the assumption it was in Persia before Turkey کوه نابود کنید
This produced no images of the site.
Changing to the Turkish Nemrut Dağı this produced page after page of pictures similar to the ones you posted, all colour.
Changing again to the Turkish version of 'mount nemrut black and white photograph' nemrut dağı siyah beyaz fotoğraf which did find a few but they were modern digital images.
One last throw of the dice I put in the Turkish version of this 'mount nemrut in old photographs' and found one, here it is.

From this site NEMRUT´UN KEŞFİ
Which google translate turns into this English version

DISCOVERY OF NEMRUT
(47th issue - West's Archeology Rain)

Sester and Puchstein, on May 8, 1882, left an exact copy of the inscriptions when they left Mount Nemrut, and illuminated another feature of Mount Nemrut.

Unusual archaeological artifacts at Nemrut summit within the borders of Adıyaman province are unique values of the world cultural heritage. Antiochus I, King of Kommagene, has a magnificent sanctuary and tomb monument (temple monumental -hierothesion) built by the Taurus mountain range on the summit which is known as Nimrod Mountain in 2150 meters.

a 50-meter-high artificial hill (tumulus) composed of crushed stones. There are two terraces in the east and west of the tumulus with huge statues and reliefs. Antiokhos I, with its own statue on each terrace, sitting on thrones, 9 meters high gigantic god sculptures erected.

With the processing and overlapping of large stone blocks, each of which weighs about 7-8 tons, these statues of the gods are made in the same order on both terraces From left to right are the God-King Antiochus I himself, the country's Mother Goddess Commagene, the middle of which are Zeus-Oromasdes in the middle, Apollo-Mithras by his side and Heracles-Artagnes on the far right.

On the back of the stone blocks that form the throne of the two terraces on which the statues of God sit, there is a long-term inscription (nomos) of 237 lines, which is a "testament" written by Antiochus I himself.

It is not until 1881 that the world of science became known for the first time at the summit of Nemrut Mountain. According to German Deputy Consul Müller-Raschdau, the Deputy Consular Director of the German Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin, a German named Karl Sester, who was working as a chief engineer in the construction of roads in the Diyarbakır province at a summit in the Eastern Antitoros Mountains, he claims to have had enormous Assyrian statues. According to their accounts, giant statues are located on two opposite terraces and separated from each other by a hill. According to Sester, these monumental works at an altitude of 2,000 m above sea level are closely related to Assyrian culture.

In 1881, when the Academy of Sciences came to this letter containing surprising information about Mount Nemrut, the members of the academy evaluating the subject were surprised and fell into dilemma. But in the end, the opinion of the scientists who proposed to investigate the real aspects of the information given by Sester was outweighed. For this purpose, Otto Puchstein and Karl Sester were assigned to make researches at the summit and Nemrut Mountain summit. After a challenging and adventurous journey, the two scientists reached Mount Nemrut on May 4, 1882, and found the first important information on the site. Puchstein noticed a symbol held by the headless statue on the north side of the series of statues sitting on the thrones in the left hand, and with a correct determination Heracles thought that he was always portrayed in his works of antique sculpture with such a pin.

After climbing to the podium where the sculpture bodies were, Puchstein saw the inscriptions written in Greek letters 5 cm high on the back of the stone blocks forming the throne-shaped stone seats and immediately attempted to analyze the inscription. He decided that the sculpture holding the pin in his hand portrayed Herakles.

It would appear at this stage prior to 1882 there were no photographs of the site and it doesn't appear to have been on the 'grand tour' that many european travellers undertook during the 1800's. I wonder who stood the heads upright after they were removed with remarkably little damage from the bodies, how it was done and finally why bother?
Edit to add, that picture of the lion bothers me simply because the quality of the carving (casting?) is remarkable and yet the wording looks piss poor by comparison as if done not by a master craftsman but a vandal without tools, just my take on it.


The mountain lies 40 km (25 mi) north of Kahta, near Adıyaman. In 62 BC, King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene built on the mountain top a tomb-sanctuary flanked by huge statues 8–9 m (26–30 ft) high of himself, two lions, two eagles and various Greek, Armenian, and Iranian gods, such as Vahagn-Hercules, Aramazd-Zeus or Oromasdes (associated with the Iranian god Ahura Mazda), Bakht-Tyche, and Mihr-Apollo-Mithras. These statues were once seated, with names of each god inscribed on them. The heads of the statues have at some stage been removed from their bodies, and they are now scattered throughout the site.

The pattern of damage to the heads (notably to noses) suggests that they were deliberately damaged as a result of iconoclasm. The statues have not been restored to their original positions. The site also preserves stone slabs with bas-relief figures that are thought to have formed a large frieze. These slabs display the ancestors of Antiochus, who included Armenian, Greek and Persians.

The same statues and ancestors found throughout the site can also be found on the tumulus at the site, which is 49 m (161 ft) tall and 152 m (499 ft) in diameter. It is possible that the tumulus was build to protect a tomb from tomb-robbers since any excavation would quickly fill with loose rock. [1] The statues appear to have Greek-style facial features, but Armenian / Persian clothing and hairstyling.

The western terrace contains a large slab with a lion, showing the arrangement of stars and the planets Jupiter, Mercury and Mars on 7 July 62 BC. This may be an indication of when construction began on this monument. The eastern portion is well preserved, being composed of several layers of rock, and a path following the base of the mountain is evidence of a walled passageway linking the eastern and western terraces. Possible uses for this site is thought to have included religious ceremonies, due to the astronomical and religious nature of the monument.

The arrangement of such statues is known by the term hierothesion. Similar arrangements have been found at Arsameia on Nymphaios at the hierothesion of the father of Antiochus, Mithridates I Callinicus.


22 Jan 2013 at 21:17


Sanctuary and mega mausoleum on Mount Nemrut Dag is one of the most famous attractions of Turkey and the main sanctuary of the ancient kingdom of Commagene. Pictures of huge heads and offer to go on tour to Nemrut Dag can be found in almost any travel agency in Turkey.

But nevertheless, not everyone has been on Nemrut, and here we talk not only about foreigners who have visited Turkey once, but even Turkish Cypriots who have resided in the country through years. There could be several reasons found for this. First of all, it is in the East of Turkey, far enough. Secondly, a visit to Nemrut Dag is during limited times of the year.

Generally, Nemrut Dag is not only a mountain, but also a National Park. Furthermore, there is not only pantheon, which visitor can look through (those of the heads), but also lot more which has been kept through centuries of debris, as once here was located the Commagene kingdom.

Once, approximately on the 2ndcentury BC, Mount Nemrutlaid on the territory of the state of dwarf Commagene. Though the state was small, it appears to have been very proud at the same time. This particularly applies to the rulers. King MithridatesI, nicknamed Kalinikos, which means “beautifully wins”,on this spot arranged parochial Olympic Games and has been directly involved in them. However, King Antiochus I

surpassed all kings. Bearing in mind that he had the Greek and Persian roots and moreover, he imbibed the western and eastern world, Antiochus set up his own religion. At the same time, he ranked himself as God. Mount Nemrutwas declared as a religious center. Antiochus started to build ritual complex. Although, having a plan of widely spreading his religion, and to finish the complex to the end, Antiochus failed. This process was stopped with an unexpected death of the ruler. After this, the existence of Commagene Nemrut was forgotten. It was found by Crusaders. However strange it should not sound, nobody paid attention to this fact and it was again forgotten. Next time the mountain Nemrutwas discovered in 1881 by engineers and geologists from Germany Karl Sisters. Karl did not find what he was looking for, but reopened the World Nemrut Dag. Serious studies about Nemrut Dag began only in the middle of the 20th century.

At the top of Mount Nemrut 3 terraces are cut – the eastern, western and northern. There are numerous statues of gods, up to 10 meters in height, which used to be one-piece sculptures.

But, after the earthquake in these areas, the heads fell down. Now they are located nearby their bodies. Terraces are surrounded by a man-made hill which amounts to 50 meters in height and 152 meters in diameter. It is believed, that somewhere in the bowels of the hill, Antiochus is buried himself. Unfortunately, this is only speculation and rumors, which has not been proved by any evidence.

Before one would see the sacred heads of the gods, he/she has to overcome some 2 kilometers walking path of the stone steps. They lead to the sanctuary on the eastern terrace Nemrut Dag.

According to the reconstruction of the sanctuary on the eastern terrace looked like Nemrut:

Gods are in a sitting position, which is quite unusual one. According to Antiochus, here was a home of the Gods, where they relaxed their heavenly thrones.

The figures are made of limestone, and the bodies of the gods are built of massive blocks. Once, the pieces of the figures were polished. It is interesting to observe that while constructing this place, the idea of guarding gods was considered. One can see the lion and an eagle.


In front of the Statues there is a platform on which the sacrificial fire was being ignited. Now this platform is used as a convenient place to take pictures and to meet the sunrise.

Going round the hill one can reach the West Terrace. West Terrace of Nemrut Dag is not as large as the East. Here, the gods are closer to the people, instead of looking down on them from above. On the western terrace there are all the same characters: Antiochus, Tyche, etc. On the sides of the figures are the ancestors of Antiochus, both from the Persian and the Greek side.

North Terrace of Nemrut Dag was intended to be a gathering place for people during ceremonies. Nearly all times the procession moved towards the eastern terrace, hence not much of it is left for visitors.

Nowadays around Nemrut Dag there is nothing but mountains. And before that, it was part of the kingdom. Something of this kingdom can be seen today,but one cannot have this feeling during walking around by feet, because sites are located at a great distance from each other, thus the connection chain is difficult to ascertain.

One more notice. One should not confuse this amazing sightseeing place with the same Nemrut Dag volcano Nemrut, which is also located in modern Turkey near Lake Van. This is completely different mountain.

It is strongly suggested to everyone planning to visit Turkey, to plan their trip so that beyond seeing the majestic cities and countryside, to bear in mind that there is the Mountain of Gods – Nemrut Dag, waiting for them as well.


Contents

The mountain lies 40 km (25 mi) north of Kahta, near Adıyaman. In 62 BC, King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene built on the mountain top a tomb-sanctuary flanked by huge statues 8–9-metre high (26–30 ft) of himself, two lions, two eagles and various Greek and Iranian gods, such as Heracles-Artagnes-Ares, Zeus-Oromasdes, and Apollo-Mithras-Helios-Hermes. [1] [2] These statues were once seated, with names of each god inscribed on them. The heads of the statues at some stage have been removed from their bodies, and they are now scattered throughout the site.

The pattern of damage to the heads (notably to noses) suggests that they were deliberately damaged as a result of iconoclasm. The statues have not been restored to their original positions. The site also preserves stone slabs with bas-relief figures that are thought to have formed a large frieze. These slabs display the ancestors of Antiochus, who included Greeks and Persians. [1]

The same statues and ancestors found throughout the site can also be found on the tumulus at the site, which is 49-metre tall (161 ft) and 152 m (499 ft) in diameter. It is possible that the tumulus of loose rock was built to protect a tomb from robbers, since any excavation would quickly fill in. [3] The statues appear to have Greek-style facial features, but Persian clothing and hair-styling.

The western terrace contains a large slab with a lion, showing an arrangement of stars and the planets Jupiter, Mercury and Mars. The composition was taken to be a chart of the sky on 7 July 62 BC. [4] This may be an indication of when construction began on this monument. The eastern portion is well preserved, being composed of several layers of rock, and a path following the base of the mountain is evidence of a walled passageway linking the eastern and western terraces. Possible uses for this site are thought to have included religious ceremonies, owing to the astronomical and religious nature of the monument.

The arrangement of such statues is known by the term hierothesion. Similar arrangements have been found at Arsameia on Nymphaios at the hierothesion of Mithridates I Callinicus, the father of Antiochus.

When the Seleucid Empire was defeated by the Romans in 190 BC at the Battle of Magnesia it began to fall apart and new kingdoms were established on its territory by local authorities. Commagene, one of the Seleucid successor states, occupied a land between the Taurus mountains and the Euphrates. The state of Commagene had a wide range of cultures which left its leader from 62 BC – 38 BC Antiochus I Theos to carry on a peculiar dynastic religious program, which included not only Greek and Iranian deities but Antiochus and his family as well. This religious program was very possibly an attempt by Antiochus to unify his multiethnic kingdom and secure his dynasty's authority. [5]

Antiochus supported the cult as a propagator of happiness and salvation. [6] Many of the ruins on Mount Nemrud are monuments of the imperial cult of Commagene. The most important area to the cult was the tomb of Antiochus I, which was decorated with colossal statues made of limestone. Although the imperial cult did not last long after Antiochus, several of his successors had their own tombs built on Mount Nemrud. [7] For around half of the year, Mount Nemrud is covered in snow, the effect of which increases weathering, which has in part caused the statues to fall in ruin. [5]

The site was excavated in 1881 by Karl Sester [de] , a German engineer assessing transport routes for the Ottomans. After her first visit in 1947, Theresa Goell dedicated her life to the site, starting campaigns in 1954. Subsequent excavations have failed to reveal the tomb of Antiochus. This is nevertheless still believed to be the site of his burial. The statues, all of them "beheaded", have not been restored to their original condition.

In 1987, Mount Nemrut was made a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. [8] Tourists typically visit Nemrut during April through October. The nearby town of Adıyaman is a popular place for car and bus trips to the site, and one can also travel from there by helicopter. There are also overnight tours running out of Malatya or Kahta. [9]


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