Your guide to apartheid in South Africa
An Afrikaans word for ‘separation’ – literally, ‘separateness’ – apartheid was used to describe the discriminatory political and economic system of racial segregation which the white minority imposed on non-whites. It was implemented by the governing party, the National Party of South Africa, from 1948 until 1994.
When did apartheid start?
Segregation according to race wasn’t new to South Africa, as racial legislation in the country can be seen as early as 1806. But it was greatly extended with the Population Registration Act of 1950, which divided South Africans into four categories: Bantu (black South Africans), Coloured (those of mixed race), White and Asian (Indian and Pakistani South Africans). The Act was designed to preserve white supremacy in the country.
What was living under apartheid like?
The effects of apartheid touched every aspect of daily life. By 1950, marriage and sexual relations between white and non-white South Africans were banned, while a series of Land Acts meant more than 80 per cent of the country’s land was set aside for the white minority. Black men and women were forced to live in ten so-called ‘black homelands’, where they were permitted to run businesses. To live and work in designated ‘white areas’, they required permits. Hospitals, ambulances, buses and public facilities were all segregated, and non-white participation in government was denied.
The impact on South Africa’s non-white population was horrific. Families were often split by the laws (if parents were black and white, their children were classed as ‘coloured’) and, between 1961 and 1994, 3.5 million people were forcibly removed from their homes. Their land was sold for a fraction of its price, plunging non-whites into severe poverty and despair.
What happened to those who broke the laws of apartheid?
South Africans caught disobeying apartheid could be imprisoned, fined or whipped, while those suspected of being in a racially mixed relationship were hunted down under the Immorality Acts of 1927 and 1950. Most ‘guilty’ couples were sent to prison. If a black man or woman was found without their ‘dompas’ – a passport containing fingerprints, photograph, personal details of employment and permission from the government to be in a particular part of the country – they could be imprisoned as well. More than 250,000 black South Africans were arrested each year under these Pass Laws.
Who fought apartheid?
In 1952, the first significant, non-violent political campaign took place – the Defiance Campaign. For four months, more than 8,000 volunteers deliberately flouted the laws of apartheid by refusing to carry passes, violating curfews and using public places and facilities designated for white-use only. The campaign, run by the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Indian Congress, generated a mass upsurge for freedom within South Africa itself, and attracted the attention of the United Nations.
Other episodes of resistance took place throughout the period, including demonstrations, protests, strikes, political action and eventually armed resistance. In 1960, one act of protest saw at least 69 unarmed black people killed and 180 wounded when the police opened fire at a protest in the poor black township of Sharpesville.
What was Nelson Mandela’s role in resistance to apartheid?
Nelson Mandela – President of the ANC Youth League – was Volunteer-in-Chief of the 1952 Defiance Campaign. He went on to play a leading role in generating large-scale resistance to apartheid and, in 1961, introduced a controversial, armed wing of the ANC – ‘Umkhonto we Sizwe’ (Spear of the Nation).
Mandela’s involvement in both peaceful and armed resistance led to a 27-year prison sentence where he was subjected to appalling and inhumane conditions. His story became famous around the world.
When did apartheid end?
In 1973, the UN had denounced apartheid, but things came to a head in 1976, when police opened fire with tear gas and bullets against school children in Soweto. The violence caused outrage and a UN embargo on the sale of arms to South Africa was introduced, followed, in 1985, by economic sanctions by the UK and US.
With mounting international pressure, some apartheid laws were revoked. In 1990, the world watched as Nelson Mandela was released from prison, whereupon he continued to campaign. Four years later, on 26 April 1994, more than 22 million South Africans took part in the first multiracial parliamentary elections, voting in the ANC with Nelson Mandela sworn in as the country’s first black president.
Nelson Mandela toiled to dismantle entrenched apartheid
Nelson Mandela speaks outside his former prison cell during a press conference in 2003 on Robben Island, off the coast of Cape Town, South Africa. From the mid-1960s through 1991, the island served as a maximum-security prison, mostly housing offenders of political offenses. Mandela spent 18 of his 27 years in prison on Robben Island. From 1964 to 1982, Mandela was incarcerated at Robben Island Prison in the cell shown. In 1990, he was freed.
Mandela stayed in this prison cell on Robben Island.
An aerial view shows the entire island, which is approximately 5 square miles (13 square kilometers).
Group prison barracks sit empty in the facility.
The last of the political prisoners on Robben Island were released in 1991, and until 1996 the island was used as a medium-security prison for criminal offenders.
A sign welcomes visitors to the island.
The Robben Island lighthouse was installed in 1864.
The John Craig Hall is seen on the island.
- South African apartheid policy was instituted in 1948
- Term was first used by the ruling National Party
- Blacks were displaced, often by threat or use of force
- System was not formally dismantled until 1994
(CNN) -- In 1948, a new word appeared in the vocabulary of South Africans, destined to symbolize racial oppression the world over.
That word was apartheid, used to describe a policy of segregation and discrimination that aimed to keep blacks and whites apart in every sphere of life.
The Afrikaner-dominated National Party had won a narrow election victory in 1948, and used the word apartheid in a policy statement to describe its segregation program.
The policy divided the South African population into four distinct racial groups -- white, African, colored and Asian -- and a plethora of laws were passed to institutionalize the apartheid system.2000: Nelson Mandela recalls prison release 1990: Mandela addresses his supporters Nelson Mandela dead at 95
In Mandela's own words Nelson Mandela dead at 95
The Population Registration Act required all South Africans to register with the government according to their race.
Interracial sex and marriage was prohibited, and each of the racial groups was required to live separately. Other laws segregated South Africans in buses, taxis, trains, hotels, restaurants and waiting rooms.
The Communist Party also was outlawed, and the government defined membership so broadly it could arrest people indiscriminately, branding them Communists.
Nelson Mandela, who has died at age 95 after years of health ailments, was born in 1918 in a South Africa where segregation of black and white was already on the statutes.
The son of a tribal chief, he grew up in a rural community in Eastern Cape where the color of his skin designated him a second-class citizen under law.
Blacks had subpar job opportunities
In the years following the creation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, legislation came into force making it a criminal offense for blacks to break a labor contract, and which restricted them to unskilled or semi-skilled jobs.
The Natives Land Act of 1913 separated South Africa into areas in which either blacks or whites could own land.
Blacks, constituting two-thirds of the population, were restricted to 7.5% of the land. Whites, making up one-fifth of the population, were given 92.5%.
It took Mandela a lifetime of struggle, including 27 years of imprisonment, to undo legislation that denied Africans basic freedoms enjoyed by the descendants of white European colonists.
A man who played a major part in transforming apartheid from an election slogan into an adopted practice was Hendrick Verwoerd, a senator in 1948 and prime minister in 1958.
He was assassinated in 1966 by a colored parliamentary messenger and was succeeded by John Vorster, who as minister of justice had orchestrated the government's campaign to crush internal resistance.
Several measures were taken in the 1960s to put the theory of apartheid into practice.
Under the provisions of the Group Areas Act, urban and rural areas in South Africa were divided into zones in which members of only one racial group could live, and all others had to move out.
In practice, it was blacks that had to move, often under threat or use of force. Between 1963 and 1985, approximately 3.5 million blacks were sent to the homelands, where they added to the already critical problem of overpopulation. Most of the homelands were economic and political disasters.
By the late 1970s, the National Party began to believe that reforms should be introduced to appease domestic and international critics.
In 1978 Pieter W. Botha, Vorster's successor, and his administration applied a mixture of carrots and sticks.
It repealed bans on interracial sex and marriage, desegregated many hotels, restaurants, buses and trains, and removed the reservation of skilled jobs for whites.
But the Botha reforms stopped short of making any real change in the distribution of power, and black resistance continued.
In 1983, Botha's government proposed that political power be shared among whites, coloreds and Indians, with separate houses of parliament for each racial group.
This proposal caused angry opposition within the National Party and 16 members were expelled. But a new constitution came into place in 1984, with P.W. Botha as the first state president.
Most blacks strongly condemned the new constitution. Rather than viewing it as a major step towards reform, they saw it as another step to bolster apartheid.
Government reforms began in mid-1980s
In January 1986, Botha shocked conservatives in the all-white House of Assembly with the statement that South Africa had "outgrown the outdated concept of apartheid."
Botha suffered a stroke in 1989 and resigned as party leader. F.W. de Klerk was elected to succeed him for a five-year term.
De Klerk recognized the urgent need to bring the black majority into the political process, and most party moderates agreed with him in principle.
But he surprised his supporters by announcing, on February 2, 1990, the impending release of Nelson Mandela, who walked to freedom nine days later at the age of 71.
De Klerk continued reforms by rapidly repealing a number of laws first introduced to bolster the apartheid system, and the irreversible progress towards democracy had begun.
By the end of 1993, Mandela, de Klerk and the leaders of 18 other parties endorsed a new interim constitution to take effect immediately after South Africa's first election of universal suffrage.
Under this constitution all citizens over 18 were enfranchised, the homelands abolished, and the country was divided into nine new provinces.
On April 27, 1994, the first elections open to all South African citizens were held, and Nelson Mandela was subsequently unanimously elected president by the new parliament.
Mandela introduced housing, education and economic development initiatives designed to improve the living standards of blacks.
He established the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate human rights abuses during apartheid, and in 1996 he oversaw the enactment of a new democratic constitution.
After a landslide ANC victory in 1999, he handed over the reigns of power to Thabo Mbeki.
Nelson Mandela and the End of Apartheid - HISTORY
Global Perspectives on Human Language:
The South African Context
1900- 90% of Africa was divided into colonies
1948- The South African government officially launches the system of apartheid, severely restricting the freedom of Black Africans.
1952- Nelson Mandela and Tambo opens the first Black legal firm in South Africa
1956- Nelson Mandela was charge with high treason and found not guilty
1959- The parliament passed new laws extending racial segregation by creating separate bantustans or homelands, for South AFrica's major Black groups.
1960- Black protests against apartheid reached a peak when police killed 69 people in the Sharpeville Massacre
1962- Nelson Mandela was arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment
1965- Rhodesia (South Africa) gained its independence. Only whites were represented in the new government
1974- South Africa is expelled from the U.N. because of apartheid
1976- More than 600 students were killed in Soweto and Sharpeville, known as the Soweto Massacre
1977- Steve Biko killed in police custody
1981- The Dumbutshena Report is commissioned by the government to investigate events surrounding the Entumbane uprising
1983- The government allows farmers to re-arm, to protect themselves from dissidents
1984- It is declared that since 1983, dissidents have murdered 120, mutilated 25, raped 47, and committed 284 robberies
1988- An amnesty is announced for all dissidents
1990- The state of emergency is not renewed
1990- The ban against the African National Congress is lifted
1990- Nelson Mandela is freed from prison
1991- Nelson Mandela becomes president of the ANC
1994- Nelson Mandela is inaugurated as President of South Africa
Sample History Research Paper on Nelson Mandela and the End of Apartheid
My course paper will be about Nelson Mandela. My main focus will be on the obstacles he faced during his time as an African leader. The paper will also focus on the key changes he made in his country, South Africa including apartheid. I will have at least four potential sources of which two will be primary.
Mandela, Nelson. Long Walk to Freedom. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1995. Print. This is a useful book I consider to be a great primary source by the fact that it was written by Nelson Mandela himself about his life. This book provides many events, beliefs and ideas that occurred to him and around him. It is accurate since it offers more details on his political leadership and insight into his life as a president and a leader among the blacks as well as the obstacles he faced.
Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla. “I Am Prepared to Die Speech.” Nelson Mandela.org. Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, n.d. Web. 23 June 2015. <http://db.nelsonmandela.org/speeches/pub_view.asp?pg=item&ItemID=NMS016&txtstr=i am prepared to die>. This also falls in the category of primary sources since it is Nelson Mandela’s personal speech done just before his incarceration. It gives the various changes that he brought to his country.
Sonneborn, Liz. The End of Apartheid in South Africa. NY: Infobase Publishing, 2010. Print. This is a valuable secondary source for this research since it offers a clear history of the apartheid and its origin. Sonnerborn’s book provides the reader with information on the impact of several events on South Africa.
Boehmer, Elleke. Nelson Mandela. NY: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc, 2010. Print. Boehmer’s book provides deep insight into the life of Nelson Mandela, his participation in historic progress in South Africa as well as his struggle against racism and his fight for democracy (Boehmer 64).
Boehmer, Elleke. Nelson Mandela. NY: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc, 2010. Print.
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Anti-apartheid movement archives
The international movement of solidarity with the struggle for freedom in South Africa was arguably the biggest social movement the world has seen. Virtually every country in the world has a history of anti-apartheid activity, in diverse forms.
In many countries, anti-apartheid activities were linked (formally or informally) with local struggles against oppression of many kinds. Most anti-apartheid movements did not restrict their activities to South Africa, but supported liberation movements in Southern Africa more broadly. Besides individual countries, a range of regional and international organisations added their voices to the struggles against apartheid.
What follows is an overview of some of the extant archival records of this extraordinary history. It is a first step towards a more comprehensive picture it is at this point but a marker.
Since our aim was to create an overview of archival records of anti-apartheid activities, we have included only those organisations for which we managed to locate archival records in the time that was available for this project. As a consequence, unfortunately, many countries and their organisations are not included in this overview and as a result a very Western European/American/Australian view of this history emerges. Since our study relied largely on available Internet resources, this problem was aggravated.
We have also limited our overview to organisations and their activities in relation to South Africa only. Therefore, organisations working exclusively for Namibia, Mozambique, Angola, etc. have not been included.
We have mainly referred to the home page of the institutions holding archival records to avoid the frustration of links not working.
Finally, we have included a downloadable alphabetical list of organisations we have come across and which were active in the international movement against apartheid. Organisations reflected in bold are described in the main sections.
We’d like to acknowledge in particular the usefulness to this project of resources held by the American Activist Archive, the Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa, and the Nordic Documentation on the Liberation Struggle in Southern Africa.
We welcome suggestions, additions and corrections to this overview from readers.
35 Pictures of Nelson Mandela’s Struggle to End Apartheid in South Africa
Nelson Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary politician, who served as the President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. Mandela was the country&rsquos first black head of state and the first black president to be elected in a democratic election with universal suffrage. Mandela&rsquos government focused on dismantling the remnants of the apartheid system and fostering positive race relations. Mandela, as an African nationalist and socialist, served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991-1997.
Mandela was born to the royal Xhosa Thembu family. He studied law at the Universty of Fort Hare and the University of Witwatersrand before practicing law in Johannesburg. While in Johannesburg, he became involved in anti-colonial and African Nationalist parties. Mandela was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial in which 156 people, including Mandela, were arrested in a raid and accused of treason. Mandela eventually joined the banned South African Communist Party and co-founded the militant Umkhoto we Sizwe in 1961, leading a sabotage campaign against the government. In 1961, Mandela was arrested for conspiring to overthrow the state and was sentenced to life imprisonment.
Mandela served 27 years in prison, initially on Robben Island, and later in Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Vester Prison. Out of fears of a racial civil war, President F.W. de Klerk released Mandela in 1990.
Mandela and de Klerk negotiated the end of apartheid and organized the 1994 multiracial general election, in which Mandela won. As President, Mandela led the coalition to form a new constitution and formed the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Despite Mandela&rsquos socialist beliefs, his administration maintained his predecessor&rsquos liberal framework, while encouraging land reform, the expansion of healthcare services, and increased welfare services.
Nelson Mandela passed away on December 5, 2013. Critics on the right have denounced Mandela as a communist terrorist and those on the left have considered him too eager to negotiate and reconcile with apartheid supporters. Mandela has received more than 250 honors, including the Nobel Peace Prize, and is described as the &ldquoFather of the Nation.&rdquo
Portrait of South African political leader Nelson Mandela between 1945 and 1960. He was wearing the traditional outfit of the Thembu tribe which he came from. Photo by API/Gamma-Rapho via Getty Images Black demonstrators cower from a police dog at Gugulethu township, near Cape Town, on August 12, 1976. Photograph- AP. A banner is held aloft above black students in Johannesburg, South Africa, in the township of Soweto where they rallied after the funeral of a 16-year-old black student who died in jail, Oct. 18, 1976. The student, Dumisani Mbatha, who was arrested following a protest march last month by young blacks in Johannesburg, died two days after his arrest Sept. 23. AP Photo PONDOLAND, SOUTH AFRICA &ndash JUNE: Mandela marries Winnie Madikizela on June 1958 in Ponderland, South Africa. A social worker from Bizana in Pondoland. Winnie takes on a more politically active role while Mandela is tied down by his trials. Over the next few years, two daughters are born, Zenani and Zindzi. Photo by API/Gamma-Rapho via Getty Images SOUTH AFRICA. Johannesburg. Nelson Mandela, then acting as a defense lawyer, outside the Drill Hall, during the Treason Trial, the first major trial for treason in South Africa. 1961. Magnum Photos African women demonstrate in front of the Law Courts in Pretoria, 16 June 1964, after the verdict of the Rivonia trial, in which eight men, among them anti-apartheid leader and African National Congress (ANC) member Nelson Mandela, were sentenced to life imprisonment. The eight men were accused of conspiracy, sabotage, and treason. Photograph: Getty Images Mandela, with some other political prisoners, raise their hands in the popular fist salute &ndash a symbol of resistance to apartheid, on their way to Robben Island Prison Yard rule. zikoko Mandela, second from right, a leader of the African National Congress, and other activists who were charged with treason by the South African government walk to their trial, in 1956. Photograph- Keystone-France: Gamma-Keystone: Getty Nelson Mandela&rsquos former prison cell (cell 5 in B-section in the political prisoners&rsquo area) on Robben Island off Cape Town. Matt Schoenfeld Nelson Mandela spent much of his sentence in solitary confinement. He was allowed one letter and one visitor every six months. zikoko Walter Sisulu was a fellow inmate in Robben Island Prison Yard. He later became an important politician and served as the ruling party&rsquos (ANC) Deputy President. zikoko Amongst these prisoners was Mandela. He spent most of his time on Robben Island working in a quarry, crushing limestone. zikoko A rare glimpse of Nelson Mandela (left) with hat, spade and dark glasses doing prison work in the garden of Robben Island jail where he spent 18 of his 27 years as a political prisoner. Working alongside him in the picture, taken surreptitiously sometime in the 1970s, are Andimba Toivo ja Toivo (center), who later became Namibian Minister of Mines and Minerals, and Brigadier Justice Mpanza (right), a former commander of the African National Congress&rsquo armed wing. Photographs of Mandela as a prisoner were banned by the apartheid government, fearing his status as an African icon. Irish Times While in prison, Nelson Mandela earned a law degree. He also learned to speak the local Afrikaans language in order to better communicate with the local inmates. zikoko Nelson Mandela and his wife as they left Victor Verster prison, 2:11:90 Even though he&rsquod been pushing for it, Mandela was still very surprised at the sudden announcement of his release. He went on to become the country&rsquos first black president in 1994. zikoko Nelson and Winnie Mandela at the Johannesburg airport. May 1990. Photograph by Lily Franey: Gamma-Rapho: Getty.
Nelson Mandela and the End of Apartheid - HISTORY
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Did You Know?
Nelson Mandela, a leader of the ANC, had been arrested in 1964 and sentenced to life imprisonment. Behind bars on Robben Island he became the symbol of the resistance to apartheid. Free Mandela was a familiar cry worldwide.
The apartheid system began to fall apart in the 1980s. Two million unemployed blacks, a shrinking white minority, continued black resistance, and an economy suffering from international sanctions finally convinced many South Africans that something had to change. F.W. De Klerk was elected in 1989 and promised to seek a compromise between the majority and the minority.
Further, the fall of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989 removed the specter of an ANC supported by the Soviets, which had to many justified the government's oppressive policies. The time was right for change.
a newly freed Nelson Mandela
"Your tireless and heroic sacrifices have made it possible for me to be here . I place the remaining years of my life in your hands"
Finally in 1990, De Klerk unbanned the ANC and released Nelson Mandela from prison. Mandela had served 28 years. The crowds were jubilant. Mandela worked with De Klerk for a peaceful transition to a multiracial South Africa.
In 1994 the first free multiracial elections were held. Millions of new voters chose from The Afrikaner National Party, the black supremist Inkatha Freedom Party, and the moderate ANC. The ANC received the most votes and Nelson Mandela was elected President by the new Parliament. Apartheid was over.
Nelson Mandela casts his vote in the 1994 elections. "Today is a day like no other before it."
Mandela and the History of Apartheid in South Africa
Nelson Mandela lived a life that was courageous and powerful, leading the people of South Africa to freedom from racial segregation and oppression, spending a near lifetime in prison to ensure that democracy could be realized in a country where segregation had become the norm for years. Mandela refused to compromise on his morals, becoming a well-respected leader not just nationally, but internationally helping South Africa to become what it is today.
South Africa for many years maintained a system of separation, commonly referred to as apartheid that was enforced in South Africa by the National Party government that ruled in the country from the period of time from the mid-1940s through mid-1990s (Crompton, 2009 Limb, 2008). During this time people in South Africa that were black had limited rights Mandela was a leading agent in the fight against apartheid in South Africa during his lifetime, as were many people in South Africa throughout the 1940s through 1990s (Limb, 2008 Crompton, 2009).
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Much of this system was maintained under the rule of colonialists and introduced following an election in 1948 by the National Party forcing segregation on the basis of race there were racial groups in South Africa that were labeled including coloured individuals, black, people and white groups, as well as sub classes that included Indians (Crompton, 2009 Sonneborn, 2010). Individuals were forced to live in segregated areas of the country many individuals including black had no citizenships, and had to live in regions that were self-governed (Limb, 2008).
Nelson Mandela was a leader of South African that resisted apartheid he first became involved in the fight against segregation as a member of the National African Congress or ANC which was an organization that was working to help change the political structure in Africa, promoting greater equality and freedom among all peoples in Africa (Limb 2008). Mandela became the leader of this group eventually this group was very similar to the National Association of the Advancement of Colored People or NAACAP) founded in the United States (Crompton, 2009, p.6). Interestingly, Mandela was fighting a battle in South Africa that was very similar to the battle that Martin Luther King, Jr. was fighting in the United States. The two men lived somewhat similar lives, fighting to end segregation worlds apart.
Mandela’s primary efforts began in the 1950s. Mandela initially wanted to work in a peaceful and nonviolent method, in an attempt to attract attention toward the need to end segregation without violence. However, even though Mandela felt it was important not to promote violence, he did feel it was necessary to attract government attention. In this respect, his efforts including plans to engage in revolutionary tactics in the fight against segregation. Guerilla warfare was commonly employed as a method of engage the government during Mandela’s early regime. In 1962 government agents arrested Mandela for his guerilla tactics (Crompton, 2009). Agents discovered blueprints with Mandela’s writing in his home that implicated Mandela in plots against government buildings. Mandela did not deny his involvement, providing a speech to the effect of how important it was for the government to be brought down, and how important it was to provide democracy and freedom to the oppressed in his country.
Mandela was an outspoken agent in the fight against apartheid, particularly in court, never hesitating to speak out against oppression, and the need for people to recognize the ills brought against the people of South Africa. He was brought to trial as a leader for the ANC, and subsequently sentenced for over 27 years in prison (Crompton, 2009). One might expect that this was the end of Mandela’s efforts at apartheid and segregation, but in fact, this only resulted in more attention toward his efforts. His imprisonment did affect the ability of the ANC to move forward with many of their plans toward de-segregation, as was likely to government’s plans. By imprisoning one of the main political figures in the ANC movement, the government did succeed in slowing down anti-apartheid efforts. However, in no way did they stop Mandela from working toward de-segregation. As much as was possible, Mandela did work from prison to encourage members of the ANC to continue in their efforts. Mandela was not sentenced to death, as would have been the case for most guerilla agents that had plotted against the government, as this would have resulted in him becoming a martyr for his cause (Crompton, 2009). Nonetheless, the people of South Africa began to recognize how important Mandela was symbolically a hero for the people of South Africa. In the United States, Martin Luther was not as lucky, having been shot for his efforts he became a true martyr in the effort against segregation and racial discrimination (Limb, 2008).
Despite his imprisonment, Mandela was able to facilitate change in South Africa. For many years, he was labeled among the lowest state prisoners, classified in the lowest prisons and not able to see many visitors. He was sentenced to harsher penalties because he was considered a danger to the government. He had some health problems while in prison, but this did not serve to discourage Mandela to discontinue in his political efforts as much as was possible, Mandela met with important political agents whenever was possible to help facilitate the efforts toward desegregation within the country (Crompton, 2009). Officials and members of the ANC eagerly petitioned for his release, and anxiously awaited word from Mandela when possible. Eventually over the years, Mandela’s prisoner status changed and he was able to receive visitors and make contacts more frequently, meeting with important officials, conducting business among outside agents in the apartheid movement (Limb, 2008). Mandela worked from prison to make negotiations, although he refused to compromise with government agents about being set free if he agreed not to engage in certain anti-apartheid activities (Limb, 2008). Mandela would not compromise on his goals or his belief systems. His long imprisonment affected the ANCs ability to negotiate anti-apartheid talks to some extent, but leaders were confident that eventually they would meet their goals and initiatives. The government continued to create “extreme” policies (Limb, 95) in the meantime, thus ultimately full de-segregation would have to wait a few more years. In 1985 Mandela worked to bring anti-apartheid leaders together to negotiate release, but Mandela was never able to compromise because the terms severe not favorable (Sonnenborn, 2010). When Mandela was finally released he immediately began efforts to reform the country, as evidenced by his efforts to encourage voting by all citizens in South Africa regardless of who they were, and what race they were (Sonnenborn, 2010). Mandela was elected President in the first election that allowed voting by all citizens in 1994 his efforts at ending apartheid resulted in a Nobel Peace Prize awarded to him in 1993 (Sonneborn, 2010).
Mandela’s contributions impacted South Africa in many ways. His efforts at reform included a near lifetime of living in prison, and eventual release due to many factors including international calls for his release the world supported Mandela, in part because he was only imprisoned as a result of asking for the freedom of the people of South Africa (Sonneborn, 2010 Limb 2008 Crompton, 2009). Few could argue that Mandela was a true leader, in the sense that he would not back down from his moral obligation to ensure that the people of South Africa would be freed from the pressure and oppression of segregation, even if that meant that Mandela would have to spend a near lifetime in prison. He serves as a leader, and many consider him a role model and representative of peace and the need to stand up for one’s cause. He lived a life of charity following his role of President of South Africa.
Apartheid. Argument against that Nelson Mandela was the only reason apartheid ended Essay Example
There is also the pressure of economic sanctions and the political pressure from neighbouring countries. And a final factor being the international sporting boycott which was a hard decisive blow to the apartheid era. B9 One source that challenges the view that Mandela was the main factor that ended apartheid was the role of FW De Klerk. Source B9 starts with a title which says “De Klerk takes apartheid apart” this opening sentence gives credit to De Klerk as it has no mention of Nelson Mandela and it mainly says that De Klerk took “apartheid apart”.
As Nelson Mandela could not officially stop apartheid it was up to a political leader to do it. As FW De Klerk was the president at the time he made some controversial decisions which did not please some white people. The source starts off saying that “President FW De Klerk has knocked out the main props of the racist apartheid system which held white minority in power in South Africa for the last 42 years”. This changed history and was a point where blacks could try to be equal, without F. W. De Klerk this would not have happened. De Klerk
made an “epoch-making speech” which was a defining historical period which was ended apartheid. As a white politician he was treated with hospitality by the black people. He unbanned the African National Congress, the South African communist party, and other anti-apartheid organizations. He also promised to free Mandela within a fortnight. By him freeing and legalizing opposition groups this gave the black people a fighting chance to end apartheid this obviously raged a lot of white people. There were different public reactions as blacks were overjoyed, and whites were not happy and De Klerk was accused of “betraying his people”.
This was written in a book called “From On This Day” it’s the history of the world in 366 days. This book was written with historical facts this makes it unbiased as they are “historical facts”. It is secondary and balanced, it is written in hindsight and it is reliable. To will write this the author would have had to consider a lot of historical events before making his judgment. This must have been an important event otherwise De Klerk would have not made it into the history of the world, this shows was the serious importance of this event.
The limitation of this source is that its general there is no name, so I can’t tell if it could be bias or not. The source seems to be a summary so it would need more detailed to make a judgment. This source challenges the view that it was not only Mandela that ended apartheid as Mandela and would have needed the help of a very powerful politician, and without De Klerk the laws of apartheid could not have been removed. B11 B11 also contradicts the view that Mandela’s leadership end apartheid. Instead it argues that economic sanctions and political pressure from other countries helped to end apartheid.
Economic sanctions mean domestic penalties applied by one country on another country. Economic sanctions may include various forms of trade barriers and restrictions on financial transactions. After the 1980s Thatcher and Reagan refused to enforce economic sanctions, they believed in free trade and wanted South Africa as an ally against communism. Barclay’s bank sold its largest South African bank network due to a British student protest. People refused to buy things from South Africa and in 1986 the common market refused to buy iron and
steel from South Africa. In 1985 more violence was seen in townships and the Chase Manhattan bank in New York stopped its links with South Africa and as a result of that on major financial crisis followed. Many more International Investors began to see South Africa as a poor credit risk and as a result they had the pull out their investments. The worldwide rejection started a growth of economic pressure to end apartheid. In South Africa their movements, one was called the black consciousness movement and Steve Niko was a part of this, who later was killed.
When Robert Mugabe became prime minister of the independent Zimbabwe in 1980 South Africa was left with no white government neighbours, the survival of apartheid “began to appear more questionable. ” These political pressures helped South Africa lose its buffer zone of likeminded neighbours. This was written by Tony Howarth who is a historian is writing in a school history textbook was called “the world since 1900” (1982) Tony Howarth is a historian who is trained to be objective and unbiased. To be allowed to be published in a school textbook it must be factual and historically correct.
The use of this source however is limited as it is a textbook for school students so it will be less informative and less explanatory. A specialist book focusing on apartheid in South Africa would provide more detailed information and discuss different reasons why apartheid ended. The fact that this event was mentioned in 20th century history means it must have been a very important factor that caused apartheid to end, it backs up my point that it was not just Mandela there were more factors to the end of apartheid. B12 B13 disagrees with the viewpoint outlined in the title.
It contends that sporting boycotts were crucial to ending apartheid. Afrikaners were keen on sports especially rugby and cricket these teams were highly successful and very highly rated internationally, but then boycotts were introduced. Some Africans are proud of these teams and were mortified when boycotts were introduced, South Africa did not want be kept out of the national sporting events, and were banned from the Olympic games in the 1960’s. In 1970 the cricket tour to England was cancelled, and in 1977 commonwealth and sporting contacts and rugby tours such as the lions tour stopped going to South
Africa. Source B12 is someone’s view and they say it was a “fundamental blow to apartheid” which means it really meant something to sporting figures in South Africa. The writer describes people as “rugby fanatics” the fact he uses the word “fanatics” means its not just a gamr to them it really was a hard blow to them. The source then says that “most observers of the downfall of apartheid say will say the boycott was an absolutely fundamental body blow to the whole process”. Because he did not say the statement himself, it was by “objective observers” this means it was impartial and not the writers own opinion.
When he goes on to say it was a “fundamental body blow” it underlines the importance of the sporting boycott. The source then goes on to say “Most white South African men were far more interested in the sports pages than in the news pages” this implies the sport was an essential part of South African culture. This was written by Peter Hain an MP for Neath and a leading anti-apartheid campaigner in the 1970s giving an interview to the Western Mail newspaper. (November 2004). Hain is bias as he is anti-apartheid, and he could exaggerate importance of the boycott.
It is a primary source as Hain met Mandela and lived through the apartheid era. This is written in hindsight in 2004 he is retelling and looking back on events. This source could be more trusted if Hain was a historian but as he is not, it can be bias and probably is. But this source can useful as it retells the events in some detail. This can be useful to a historian but not very useful. This is still a factor which could have caused apartheid to end, so nevertheless the source has some use. B15
Many people would argue thattoo much focus has been out on Mandela and not other important black leaders such as Lilian Ngoyi. Source B16 shos but she played a vital role in the anti-apartheid protests and was actively campaigning when Mandela was imprisoned. Source B15 starts with a speech at Ngoyi funeral. The first sentence includes her with her male peers “Nelson Mandela, Govan Mbeki and Walter Sisulu. ” She’s compared to these men who were successful anti-apartheid campaigners. The next paragraph starts with “away liberation waits for mothers like Lillian.
Men will catch the disease of determination from you. Sisters, mothers, women, our liberation is in your hands. ” This is including women and shows women playing an important role in the campaign against apartheid. Ngoyi is an inspiration for all women, as it says in the source “the challenge is not so much on the men but on the women to start where Lillian Ngoyi left off. ” This source was extracts from speeches made at the funeral of Lilian Ngoyi in 1980. She was the first woman elected to the executive committee of the African National Congress and helped launch the Federation of South African women.
The source is biased due to the context as it is funeral and people will exaggerated the achievements and importance of her actual achievements. It’s not an objective assessment of her contribution to the anti-apartheid movement. This source could be less bias if there was a historian’s view of Lilians achievements. Even though this could be bias she still did help with all these things and was an important factor to the end of apartheid, Proving it was not just Mandela that there were also other main factors that caused apartheid to end.