Mary Queen of Scots defeated

Mary Queen of Scots defeated

At the Battle of Langside, the forces of Mary Queen of Scots are defeated by a confederacy of Scottish Protestants under James Stewart, the regent of her son, King James VI of Scotland. During the battle, which was fought out in the southern suburbs of Glasgow, a cavalry charge routed Mary’s 6,000 Catholic troops, and they fled the field. Three days later, Mary escaped to Cumberland, England, where she sought protection from Queen Elizabeth I.

READ MORE: The Wildly Different Childhoods of Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots

In 1542, while just six days old, Mary ascended to the Scottish throne upon the death of her father, King James V. Her great-uncle was Henry VIII, the Tudor king of England. Mary’s mother sent her to be raised in the French court, and in 1558 she married the French dauphin, who became King Francis II of France in 1559 and died in 1560. After Francis’ death, Mary returned to Scotland to assume her designated role as the country’s monarch. In 1565, she married her English cousin Lord Darnley, another Tudor, which reinforced her claim to the English throne and angered Queen Elizabeth.

In 1567, Darnley was mysteriously killed in an explosion at Kirk o’ Field, and Mary’s lover, James Hepburn, the earl of Bothwell, was the key suspect. Although Bothwell was acquitted of the charge, his marriage to Mary in the same year enraged the nobility, and Mary was forced to abdicate in favor of her son by Darnley, James. In 1568, she escaped from captivity and raised a substantial army but was defeated and fled to England. Queen Elizabeth I initially welcomed Mary but was soon forced to put her cousin under house arrest after Mary became the focus of various English Catholic and Spanish plots to overthrow her.

In 1586, a major Catholic plot to murder Elizabeth was uncovered, and Mary was brought to trial, convicted for complicity, and sentenced to death. On February 8, 1587, Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded for treason at Fotheringhay Castle in England. Her son, King James VI of Scotland, calmly accepted his mother’s execution, and upon Queen Elizabeth’s death in 1603, he became James I, king of England, Scotland and Ireland.


Major History Mistakes Made in the Movie Mary, Queen of Scots

Saoirse Ronan in Mary Queen of Scots (2018). Focus Features.

5. Wrong: Whilst Mary did indeed flee Scotland after being forced to abdicate in favor of her infant son, James Stuart, the former Queen of Scotland was imprisoned for a year before she could actually escape to England

As represented accurately in Mary, Queen of Scots, in the aftermath of the death of Mary&rsquos second husband, Lord Darnley, the Scottish Queen sought to quickly remarry a member of the nobility believing it would shore up her claim. Overlooked by the cinematic production was that her protector, James Hepburn, Lord Bothwell, abducted Mary on April 24, 1567, likely raping her at Dunbar Castle, before forcibly marrying the widowed monarch at Holyrood on May 15. Prompting outrage among the wider nobility, with the public scandalized by their ruler marrying the very man accused of murdering her former husband, a coalition formed to remove Mary from the throne.

Confronting her enemies at Carberry Hill, her army deserted during negotiations leaving Mary no option but to abdicate the crown in favor of her one-year-old son on July 24. However, whereas Mary, Queen of Scots, largely for the sake of narrative pace, depicts Mary immediately departing into exile in England, in reality the former monarch was imprisoned at Loch Leven Castle for more than a year. Escaping on May 2, 1568, Mary raised an army of six thousand but was defeated at the Battle of Langside eleven days later. Only after this loss did Mary flee across the border, entering via fishing boat, in the hope her cousin would provide military assistance.


How did Mary Queen of Scots die?

Mary Queen of Scots was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 (see our timeline) in favour of her son James. In 1568, following her defeat at the battle of Langside she fled to England, hoping that she could gain the protection of her cousin and fellow queen, Elizabeth I. But this was not to be.

Mary's prisons

During her ensuing years in England, Mary was kept in a number of prisons around the country, which varied in the quality of their accommodation and the degree of freedom offer. Read about these in prisons of Mary Queen of Scots .

Mary and Elizabeth I

Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots would never meet in person, despite their reported curiosity about each other. Eventually, after Mary's involvement in the Babington Plot, Elizabeth was persuaded that Mary was a threat to her throne and signed her death warrant.

Where did Mary Queen of Scots die?

Mary was executed on 8 February 1587 at Fotheringay Castle in Nottinghamshire. A well-known memorial portrait provides a look at the execution scene. She was accompanied to the scaffold by her pet dog, who was with her, along with ladies in waiting, during her final moments.

Where is Mary buried?

Mary is buried at Westminster Abbey in London. A replica of her tomb effigy is on display at National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh and is shown here.


Remains of Mary Queen of Scots were secretly buried at this forgotten Northamptonshire mound

You may know that Northamptonshire was the place where Mary, Queen of Scots was brutally executed - but did you know that some of her remains were secretly buried here too?

The tumultuous life of the queen ended after she was accused of conspiring to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I in 1586.

On February, 8 1587, she was taken to be executed at Fotheringhay Castle about three miles north of Oundle in Northamptonshire, of which only a mound and earthworks now remain.

Queen Mary&aposs body was embalmed and left in a secure coffin until her burial, held in a Protestant service, at Peterborough Cathedral in July 1587.

But, in secret, her entrails, which had been removed during the embalming process, were buried at Fotheringhay Castle.

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Having passed between ancient kings such as King John, and also having been the birth place of King Richard II, the fortification was also the final place of imprisonment for Mary.

The castle was dismantled in the 1630s but the site is still protected, is a Scheduled Monument, and is still celebrated as significant by local historians like Mike Ingram.

Specialising in Northamptonshire&aposs history, Mike has recently published a book all about the history of Northampton, and has a passion for reviving an interest in the fascinating history of his home county.

"There are so many nationally important people and places in Northamptonshire that have just been forgotten," he said.

Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth&aposs relationship has been explored widely by historians and creatives alike, not least in the most recent Hollywood film "Mary, Queen of Scots", and one thing is for sure - Mary&aposs death was a brutal affair.

She was arrested on August 11, 1586, after being implicated in a plot to kill Queen Elizabeth.

Coded letters showed that she had called for the assassination of Queen Elizabeth I, so she was taken to Fotheringhay in September, where she was held and put on trial.

That trial was held in front of 36 of the Queen&aposs noblemen, including Cecil, Shrewsbury and Walsingham.

According to Mike, one commissioner, Lord Zouche of Harringworth from Northamptonshire, "expressed any form of dissent". After being found guilty, Mary was told she was to be executed the next day.

"She spent the last hours of her life in prayer, distributing her belongings to her household, and writing her will and a letter to the King of France," Mike said.

"A scaffold was erected in Fotheringhay Castle’s Great Hall which was two feet high and draped in black. The next morning, Mary was led up the steps on to the wooden stage. She knelt on a cushion and with arms outstretched she placed her head on the block.

"The executioner swung his axe. The first blow missed her neck and struck the back of her head. The second blow severed the neck, except for a small bit of sinew, which the executioner cut through using the axe.

"Afterwards, he held her head aloft and declared, “God save the Queen.” However, the auburn hair in his hand turned out to be a wig and the head fell to the ground, revealing that Mary had very short, grey hair.

"A small dog owned by the queen is said to have emerged from hiding among her skirts."

When her son, King James I came to the throne, her body was moved to Westminster Abbey, where she was placed opposite Queen Elizabeth I.

Mike Ingram&aposs new book, Northampton: 5,000 Years of History" is available to buy now from Amazon.


Mary Queen of Scots defeated - HISTORY

In 1561, Mary, Queen of Scots, upset the applecart of the Protestant Reformation. Her husband, Francois II, King of France had died unexpectedly, and the Scots were more than a little surprised by the sudden appearance of Mary's ship at Leith's port. Since 1542, Scotland had been ruled by a series of regents acting in Mary’s name. By 1560, The Lords of the Congregation had overthrown the power of Mary’s mother, Mary of Guise, and created a provisional government, but now she returned, bringing with her the glamour and authority of Scotland’s royal court, and drawing nobles, both Catholic and Protestant, to its intrigues.

The Protestant Kirk which had been established in defiance of royal authority, found itself in limbo and subject to a Catholic monarch. For ministers like John Knox, Mary represented a serious threat to the whole Protestant cause. To his even greater annoyance, Mary interfered but little in matters of religion: tolerating the Kirk and even granting it revenues. However, Mary did refuse to give her assent to the Scottish Parliament’s acts which abolished the mass.

Catholic and Protestant
In the 16th century there was a wide spectrum of opinion on Church reform, although most desired reform of some sort. In 1560, neither Catholicism or Protestantism had been systematically defined (it wasn't until the 1570s that the Council of Trent defined Catholicism), and pressing questions were begging to be answered within the new Protestant Church in Scotland. Which form of Protestantism did God want: Lutheranism or Calvinism? How was a church created in defiance of royal authority to be governed? Were there to be bishops or not? Was the church to be known as Episcopalian or Presbyterian. Was it to be under the control of a ‘godly’ prince or ‘godly’ ministers?

These tensions are well represented in the two key figures - James Stewart and John Knox. James Stewart, Earl of Moray, was the half-brother of Mary, Queen of Scots. An Augustinian Canon, he was well educated and as well cultured as any privileged landowner. A sincere Protestant, he had led the Lords of the Congregation in rebellion in 1559. However, with Mary’s return he was drawn to court and advised Mary on many matters of religion. It was Moray who carved out the compromise deal which allowed Mary to have her own private mass once the mass had been publicly banned, thus allowing her to remain Catholic and continue her claim to the throne of England, but without interfering with the Reformation settlement.

John Knox on the other hand was born into a relatively poor East Lothian background. For Knox ‘In religion there is nae middes (middle): one is either of God, or the Devil’. He was a man with a will to break up society: a militant Protestant who wanted no dealings with Catholicism at all. In practice this meant throwing your wife or family out onto the street for receiving the sacraments, or ceasing all trade and business with Catholics. Most Scots, however, found this more than a little impractical and formed a vast army of compromisers - holding society together through tolerance.

The Confrontation
Moray and Knox came into confrontation over the issue of Mary’s private mass. To Knox it was more dangerous than ten thousand armed Frenchmen, and he fuelled the anti-Catholic fire by leading a Protestant mob to Holyrood Abbey to disrupt the Queen's mass. However, when he arrived there he found the door barred against him by Moray. Holyrood was his brother's monastic precinct and he was determined no mob should disrupt the political deal he had negotiated. Knox was forced to withdraw and was henceforth regarded as a political liability. The Reformation was ruled by the Lords of the Congregation, not by the rule of Knox and the mob.

Mary was attempting was to ride out the Reformation crisis, hoping to bring the Kirk under royal control in a moderate Protestant form and, for a while, it seemed she would succeed. Then matters became very complicated for Mary. Her second husband, and father to King James VI, Lord Darnley, was murdered. Mary then married one of the suspected assassins James Hepburn, the Earl of Bothwell - a man with more than a few enemies in the kingdom. It was then that Scottish nobility rose against her- claiming that their actions were motivated by a desire to protect Mary from Bothwell's malign influence.

The Deposition of Mary
In 1567 Mary was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle after a coup d’etat to separate her from Bothwell’s influence. This is all that most of the Scots nobility wanted, however, six weeks later Protestant radicals seized their chance and mounted a second coup d'etat which forced Mary’s abdication in favour of her infant son, James VI. Scotland spiralled into six years of civil war. Of the two rival factions, Mary commanded the most support (she was after all the legitimate queen), but after defeat at the Battle of Langside she fled into exile in England. Here she sought protection from her cousin, Elizabeth I of England, who, suspicious of any provocation to a Catholic uprising in her own realm, had Mary imprisoned. This was her fate, until 1587, when she was beheaded on a charge of treason.

After The Battle of Langside the Protestants had the upper hand in Scotland's civil war. The Protestant, William Kirkcaldy of Grange, held Edinburgh Castle in Mary's name, enduring two years of the ‘Lang Siege’ before the English cannon finally smashed the castle's defences to rubble in 1573. Scotland now had a Protestant regime, ruling over a far from convinced population.

To convince the population of the legality of their actions the Protestant radicals called upon the power of the printing press and one of Scotland’s greatest Renaissance scholars - George Buchanan.


A History of Scotland in the 16th and 17th Century

During the reign of James IV (1488-1513) Renaissance reached Scotland and it was a great age for literature. Also, the first printing press was set up in Edinburgh in 1507. Meanwhile, Aberdeen University was founded in 1495, and in 1496 a law was passed requiring all well-off landowners to send their eldest sons to school. Then in 1503, James married Margaret, daughter of Henry VII of England.

In 1511 James built a huge warship called the Great Michael. However, in 1513 he invaded England. The Scots were badly defeated at the battle of Flodden and James himself was killed. His heir James V was only a child and he did not begin to rule Scotland till 1528. The Scots invaded England in 1542 but were defeated at the battle of Solway Moss in November. The king died in December 1542 while still a young man. The throne passed to Mary Queen of Scots, who was only a baby. Henry VIII of England wanted his son to marry Mary. The Regent of Scotland, the Earl of Arran signed the Treaty of Greenwich in 1543, agreeing to the marriage.

However, in December 1543 the Scottish parliament repudiated the treaty. So in 1544 and 1545 the English invaded southern Scotland and devastated it. The English invaded Scotland again in 1547 and defeated the Scots at Pinkie. The English invaded again in 1548 so Mary was sent to France. Later she married a French prince.

In the 16th century Scotland, like the rest of Europe, was rocked by the Reformation. Early in the century Protestant ideas spread through Scotland and gradually took hold. Finally, in 1557 a group of Scottish nobles met and signed a covenant to uphold Protestant teachings.

However, the leading figure in the Scottish Reformation was John Knox (1505-1572). In 1559 he returned from Geneva where he had learned the teachings of John Calvin. Knox’s preaching won many converts and finally in 1560 the Scottish parliament met and severed all links with the Pope. Parliament also banned the Catholic mass or any doctrine or practice contrary to a confession of faith drawn up by Knox. The Scottish Reformation had succeeded and Scotland was now a Protestant country.

In 1561 Queen Mary returned from France after the death of her husband. Mary was a staunch Catholic. She was forced to accept the Scottish Reformation but she had no intention of abandoning her own faith. In 1565 Mary married her Catholic cousin Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley. However, Darnley became jealous of Mary’s Italian secretary David Riccio. In March 1566 Darnley and his friends murdered Riccio. Mary never forgave Darnley and she came under the spell of the Earl of Bothwell.

In 1567 a house where Darnley was staying was blown up. When Darnley’s body was found it was discovered that he had been strangled. Shortly afterward Mary married Bothwell. Enraged the Protestant nobles rose and captured Mary. They forced her to abdicate in favor of her baby son, who became James VI. Mary escaped and raised an army but she was defeated at the Battle of Langside and fled to England.

Scotland was ruled by regents until James was old enough to rule himself. (In 1587 his mother Mary was beheaded in England). In 1589 James married Anne of Denmark. then in 1603, on the death of Elizabeth I he became King James I of England as well as King James VI of Scotland.

Edinburgh Castle

Scotland in the 17th Century

However, the Scottish Church was different in some of its doctrines and practices from the English Church. James’s son Charles I (1625-1649) foolishly tried to bring the Scottish religion in line with the English religion. In 1637 he tried to impose a prayer book on the Scots.

However, the Scots rejected it utterly. On 28 February 1638 and the following two days nobles and gentlemen in Edinburgh signed a document promising to uphold the ‘true religion’. The document became known as the National Covenant and messengers took copies all over Scotland for people to sign.

Charles tried to force the Scots to submit and in 1639 he raised an army in England. However, he was desperately short of money and he made a peace treaty to buy time. In 1640 Charles raised another army but the Scots invaded England and they occupied Newcastle and Durham. They withdrew in 1641.

Meanwhile, Charles managed to alienate his English subjects, and in 1642 civil war began in England. At first, the Scots remained neutral. However, in 1643, the English parliament persuaded the Scots to join their side by promising to make England Presbyterian. In 1644 the Scots sent an army to England. Yet not all Scots agreed with this decision. Some supported the king and in 1644 the Marquis of Montrose raised an army in the Highlands to fight for him.

At first, Montrose had some success but in 1645 he was defeated at Philiphaugh. Meanwhile, the king was defeated in England and in 1646 he surrendered to the Scottish army at Newark. Montrose fled to Norway.

In 1567 a house where Darnley was staying was blown up. When Darnley’s body was found it was discovered that he had been strangled. Shortly afterward Mary married Bothwell. Enraged the Protestant nobles rose and captured Mary. They forced her to abdicate in favor of her baby son, who became James VI. Mary escaped and raised an army but she was defeated at the Battle of Langside and fled to England.

Scotland was ruled by regents until James was old enough to rule himself. (In 1587 his mother Mary was beheaded in England). In 1589 James married Anne of Denmark. then in 1603, on the death of Elizabeth I he became King James I of England as well as King James VI of Scotland.

Scotla nd in the 17th Century

However, the Scottish Church was different in some of its doctrines and practices from the English Church. James’s son Charles I (1625-1649) foolishly tried to bring the Scottish religion in line with the English religion. In 1637 he tried to impose a prayer book on the Scots.

However, the Scots rejected it utterly. On 28 February 1638 and the following two days nobles and gentlemen in Edinburgh signed a document promising to uphold the ‘true religion’. The document became known as the National Covenant and messengers took copies all over Scotland for people to sign.

Charles tried to force the Scots to submit and in 1639 he raised an army in England. However, he was desperately short of money and he made a peace treaty to buy time. In 1640 Charles raised another army but the Scots invaded England and they occupied Newcastle and Durham. They withdrew in 1641.

Meanwhile, Charles managed to alienate his English subjects, and in 1642 civil war began in England. At first, the Scots remained neutral. However, in 1643, the English parliament persuaded the Scots to join their side by promising to make England Presbyterian. In 1644 the Scots sent an army to England.

Yet not all Scots agreed with this decision. Some supported the king and in 1644 the Marquis of Montrose raised an army in the Highlands to fight for him. At first, Montrose had some success but in 1645 he was defeated at Philiphaugh. Meanwhile, the king was defeated in England and in 1646 he surrendered to the Scottish army at Newark. Montrose fled to Norway.

However the English now dragged their feet about introducing Presbyterianism. When it became clear they were not going to the Scots made a deal with the king. He promised to introduce Presbyterianism in England for a 3-year trial period. So a Scottish army invaded England in 1648 but it was defeated at Preston. Then in January 1649, the English beheaded Charles I.

The Scots immediately proclaimed his son Charles II king. Charles II like his father Charles I and his grandfather James VI was an Episcopalian. He believed bishops should govern the Church. Nevertheless to gain the support of the Scots he agreed to accept Presbyterianism in Scotland. In June 1650 he went to Scotland and he was crowned king at Scone in January 1651.

Meanwhile, in July 1650 another English army invaded Scotland and occupied Edinburgh. In the summer of 1651, they defeated a Scottish army at Inverkeithing. A Scottish army then invaded England. They hoped English royalists would join them but they did not. The Scots were routed at Worcester in September 1651. Charles II fled abroad. The English army then occupied the whole of Scotland.

However, the English occupation ended in 1660 when Charles II became king of England and Scotland. Charles II restored bishops to the Church of Scotland. However, about a third of ministers resigned. Many Scots, especially in the southwest, held secret religious meetings called conventicles. Gradually the government treated them more harshly.

Finally, in 1679, the Archbishop of St Andrews was murdered and unrest spread through the west. However, the government sent troops to quell it and the Covenanters were defeated at the battle of Bothwell Brig. Nevertheless, the Covenanters continued to resist and the government continued to persecute them. The 1680s became known as the killing time.

Charles II died in 1685 and his brother James became King James II. However, James II was a Roman Catholic and both English and Scots feared he would restore Roman Catholicism. James II was deposed in 1688 and William and Mary became king and queen of Scotland. The Scottish parliament restored Presbyterianism. However, not all Scots welcomed the new monarchs. The Highlanders rose under Viscount Dundee. They won a victory at Killiecrankie in 1689 but their leader was killed and the Highlanders dispersed.

The government was determined to bring the Highlands to heel and they ordered the chiefs of all the clans to take an oath of loyalty to King William by the last day of 1691. However, the chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe arrived late and only took the oath on 6 January 1692. Even though he was only a few days late the government decided to make an example of him. So troops led by Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon were sent to Glencoe and billeted in cottages there. The MacDonalds treated them hospitably.

However early in the morning of 13 February Campbell and his men fell on the sleeping McDonalds. They went from house to house killing the inhabitants and then burning the houses. Altogether 38 people were murdered including the clan chief. This appalling massacre became known as the massacre of Glencoe.


Major History Mistakes Made in the Movie Mary, Queen of Scots

Saoirse Ronan and Margot Robbie as Mary I of Scotland and Elizabeth I of England. Focus Features.

9. Wrong: Whilst both Queens were polite and courteous towards one another, maintaining at best a cordial relationship, Mary, Queen of Scots at times ahistorically exaggerates the affection between the pair

Upon her return to Scotland in 1561, where Mary, Queen of Scots begins Mary&rsquos story, the young widow understood the political difficulties facing her. A Catholic, and a foreigner in the eyes of many, in a newly Protestant country bordered by a Protestant England, Mary was compelled to adopt a degree of congeniality and friendliness towards her cousin. Similarly, Elizabeth sought to ensure Scotland remained a stable neighbor and, most importantly, Protestant. With a Catholic Scotland posing a genuine threat to herself, Elizabeth likewise was forced to adopt an accommodating posture towards her relation.

However, Mary was equally combative and disruptive towards Elizabeth and it would be inaccurate to depict either as anything more than polite rivals. During her residency in France and marriage to Francis, his father, Henry II, had declared Elizabeth unfit and proclaimed Mary the rightful Queen of England. Maintaining this claim throughout her husband&rsquos brief reign, Mary&rsquos public attempt to usurp Elizabeth&rsquos crown precluded any sisterly bond as depicted in the film. Elizabeth&rsquos concerns for Mary, depicted as genuine and legitimately traumatizing for the English monarch, were exaggerated, with Elizabeth and Mary&rsquos familial bond muted at best.


Mary Queen of Scots facts

Explore the life of Mary Queen of Scots, with our timeline of key events in the life of the Stewart queen.

Mary Queen of Scots timeline

1. Mary's birth: 8 December 1542

Mary was born at Linlithgow Palace, the daughter of James V of Scotland and his second wife Marie de Guise.

2. Mary became queen: 14 December 1542

James V was killed following the Battle of Solway Moss, leaving Mary as queen of Scotland at six days of age.

3. Mary Queen of Scots was crowned: 9 September 1543

Mary was crowned at Stirling Castle, a building which was a favourite with the Stewarts, and which Mary would visit many times. Stirling was chosen because of its position as one of the most secure locations within the kingdom. Stirling Castle facts.

4. The rough wooing: 9 September 1547

Mary arrived for a stay at Inchmahome Priory during the &lsquorough wooing&rsquo during which Henry VIII of England tried to force a marriage between Mary and his son Edward.

5. Mary left for France: August 1548

Mary leaves Scotland for France, to be brought up in the royal court in preparation for her marriage to Francis, dauphin of France, under the terms of the Treaty of Haddington. The royal party leave from Dumbarton Castle, with a week-long sea voyage ahead of them.

6. The marriage of Mary Queen of Scots: 24 April 1558

Mary married Francis in Notre Dame de Paris. Explore the story of Mary's three husbands.

7. Mary as queen: 10 July 1559

Henry II of France died, leaving Francis as king of France and Mary his queen.

8. Death of Francis II: 5 December 1560

Francis II died and the French throne passed to his brother Charles. His death came just months after that of Mary&rsquos mother Marie de Guise, who died on 11 June in Edinburgh Castle.

9. Return to Scotland: 19 August 1561

Mary returned from France to Scotland, arriving at the Port of Leith.

10. Mary and Darnley: 29 July 1565

Mary married her second husband, Henry Lord Darnley, a marriage which proved unpopular with Mary&rsquos advisors and courtiers, as well as with Elizabeth I of England, because of the pair&rsquos individual claims to the English throne &ndash both Darnley and Mary were descendants of Henry VII of England.

11. Birth of James VI: 19 June 1566

Mary gave birth to a son, the future James VI. The prince was born at Edinburgh Castle, again chosen for its secure position.

12. Mary and Bothwell: 15 October 1566

Mary&rsquos horseback journey to Jedburgh was interrupted with the news that the Earl of Bothwell has been injured. She undertakes what became an infamous horseback ride to the earl, who later became her third husband.

13. Darnley's murder 10 February 1567

Darnley was found murdered, presumed suffocated, at Kirk o&rsquoField in Edinburgh, after escaping an explosion in the house where he was staying. Mary had been attending wedding celebrations and was accused of involvement in Darnley&rsquos death. Although Mary was accused of involvement in the murder, the prime suspect was the Earl of Bothwell, who within weeks would be Mary&rsquos husband.

14. Abduction: 24 April 1567

Mary was abducted, either forcibly or willingly, by James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell and taken to Dunbar Castle. The pair travelled to Edinburgh together and were married in a Protestant ceremony on 15 May.

15. Mary's abdication: 24 July 1567

Mary was forced to abdicate in favour of her infant son James, whilst staying at Loch Leven Castle. In May 1568, she was able to escape her island prison with the help of George Douglas, and set about trying to gather support.

16. Langside: 16 May 1568

Mary was defeated at the Battle of Langside and fled to England, hoping for the support of her cousin Elizabeth I of England. Little did Mary know that this would be the start of a 19-year imprisonment and she would never be granted an audience with her kinswoman.

17. Imprisonment: January 1569

Mary arrived at Tutbury Castle in Staffordshire, which will reputedly become her most hated prison. She was placed in the care of the Earl of Shrewsbury and his wife Bess of Hardwick.

18. Babington Plot: 1586

After years of imprisonment, Mary was implicated in the Babington Plot, when she was tricked into agreeing to a plot proposed by Anthony Babington which proposed the assasination of Elizabeth I.


Major History Mistakes Made in the Movie Mary, Queen of Scots

Saoirse Ronan as Mary I of Scotland in Mary, Queen of Scots (2018). Focus Features.

7. Wrong: While Mary undoubtedly considered Elizabeth to be her inferior, the Queen of Scotland would never have expressed this belief directly to her English cousin

In the climatic face-to-face meeting between Mary and Elizabeth in Mary, Queen of Scots, the dethroned Scottish Queen denounced her English cousin&rsquos criticisms. Responding that she would not be &ldquoscolded by her inferior&rdquo, moving beyond the already considered historical reality that the pair never, in fact, met in person, Mary&rsquos behavior in this scene would never have transpired in real life. Not only was Elizabeth at this time Mary&rsquos salvation, fleeing from imprisonment in Scotland and hoping the English Queen might assist her in reclaiming her lost crown and child, but Mary would have felt no need to explicitly state something so impolitely which she believed to be true.

However, that Mary did indeed regard herself as Elizabeth&rsquos better is incontrovertibly accurate. Along with the bulk of her Catholic contemporaries across Europe, Mary was considered the rightful ruler of England due to Elizabeth&rsquos heretical Protestantism, as well as a treasonous mother, invalidating her claim. Mary repeatedly sought to contest the throne of England, strongly opposing the Treaty of Edinburgh in 1560 &ndash which declared Elizabeth the official monarch and denied Mary the right to use the arms of signs of England and Ireland in her heraldry &ndash successfully blocking its ratification.


How did Mary Queen of Scots die?

Mary Queen of Scots was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 (see our timeline) in favour of her son James. In 1568, following her defeat at the battle of Langside she fled to England, hoping that she could gain the protection of her cousin and fellow queen, Elizabeth I. But this was not to be.

Mary's prisons

During her ensuing years in England, Mary was kept in a number of prisons around the country, which varied in the quality of their accommodation and the degree of freedom offer. Read about these in prisons of Mary Queen of Scots .

Mary and Elizabeth I

Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots would never meet in person, despite their reported curiosity about each other. Eventually, after Mary's involvement in the Babington Plot, Elizabeth was persuaded that Mary was a threat to her throne and signed her death warrant.

Where did Mary Queen of Scots die?

Mary was executed on 8 February 1587 at Fotheringay Castle in Nottinghamshire. A well-known memorial portrait provides a look at the execution scene. She was accompanied to the scaffold by her pet dog, who was with her, along with ladies in waiting, during her final moments.

Where is Mary buried?

Mary is buried at Westminster Abbey in London. A replica of her tomb effigy is on display at National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh and is shown here.


Watch the video: Reign 3x18 Lola Death Scene u0026 Leith Stabbed