The Hawker F.20/27 was a single-seat fighter aircraft that was the direct precursor of the very successful Hawker Fury, and that differed mainly from the latter aircraft by using a radial engine. The aircraft was designed in response to a short lived Air Ministry specification, F.20/27. The Hawker aircraft used their now-standard tubular steel construction system, and was powered by a 450hp Bristol Jupiter radial engine. It was a fairly standard design for the period with staggered single-bay wings, with a larger upper wing and smaller lower wing.
The prototype F.20/27 made its maiden flight in August 1928, then went to Martlesham Heath for evaluation. It achieved a top speed of 190mph, before being returned to Hawkers to receive a new Bristol Mercury VI engine. In May 1930, with this more powerful engine, it achieved a top speed of 202mph. Further trials were ordered, but the aircraft then suffered some accidental damage. The prototype engine was removed, and work on the F.20/27 prototype came to an end.
By this point development at Hawkers had already moved onto the Rolls-Royce powered Hornet, which had been completed in March 1929. This aircraft was almost identical in structure to the F.20/27, and had a similar power-to-weight ratio, but the advantages of the inline engine gave it a 10% increase in performance. The Hornet would be purchased by the Air Ministry, and became the prototype for the very successful Hawker Fury.
Engine: Bristol Jupiter 9-cylinder radial engine
Wing span: 30ft 0in
Length: 22ft 9in
Height: 9ft 5in
Empty Weight: 2,155lb
Loaded Weight: 3,150lb
Max Speed: 190mph with Jupiter engine, 202mph at 10,000ft with 520hp Mercury engine
Climb: 5min 5sec to 10,000ft
Service Ceiling: 24,800ft
Endurance: 3hr 10min
Armament: Two fixed forward firing Vickers guns
Hawker F.20/27 là một loại máy bay tiêm kích đánh chặn của Anh cuối thập niên 1920.
|F.20/27 với động cơ Mercury VI|
|Kiểu||Máy bay tiêm kích đánh chặn|
|Nguồn gốc||Vương quốc Anh|
|Nhà chế tạo||H.G.Hawker Engineering Co. Ltd.|
|Chuyến bay đầu||Tháng 8, 1928|
|Số lượng sản xuất||1|
Hawker F.20/27 - History
Harpsfield Farm early 1930s
London Aeroplane Club Garden Party 1936
DH88 Comet Racer (G-ACSR Black Magic) with King George V & Queen Mary 1936
The arrival of De Havilland put Hatfield on the map
Aerial view of a fast expanding Hatfield - 1948
Comet Prototype 1948
Trident Structural Testing 1961
BAe 146-200 (G-BMYE) alongside a Dash 7 at Hatfield - April 1988
Aircraft similar to or like Westland Interceptor
British fighter design built to an Air Ministry specification for an interceptor in the late 1920s. Single-seat biplane powered by a radial engine the very similar but V-12-engined Hawker Fury development proved superior and only one F.20/27 was built. Wikipedia
British fighter prototype. Built in 1934, but the type was not put in production because its performance fell far below the RAF's requirements. Wikipedia
Prototype British fighter aircraft of the First World War. Failure owing to the unreliability of its engine, only five being built. Wikipedia
British biplane bomber designed and built by Westland Aircraft in 1923 to meet an Air Ministry Specification for a single-engined day bomber. Designed to meet Air Ministry Specification 26/23 for a single-engined day bomber, with a Rolls Royce Condor engine specified by the ministry. Wikipedia
Partial list of the British Air Ministry specifications for aircraft. Operational Requirement, abbreviated "OR", describing what the aircraft would be used for. Wikipedia
British compact swept-wing subsonic fighter aircraft that was developed and produced by Folland Aircraft. Affordable light fighter in contrast to the rising cost and size of typical combat aircraft, it was procured as a trainer aircraft for the Royal Air Force as well as by export customers, who used the Gnat in both combat and training capacities. Wikipedia
British Rolls-Royce Griffon-engined fighter aircraft designed by Supermarine to Air Ministry specification F.1/43 during the Second World War as a successor to the Spitfire. It had a new wing design, to improve its critical Mach number and allow safe operations at higher speeds. Wikipedia
Prototype British single-engined floatplane fighter aircraft of the First World War. Single-engined tractor biplane. Wikipedia
British single-engined fighter aircraft produced in response to Air Ministry Specification F.7/30. Following the release of Air Ministry Specification F.7/30 for a single-seat day and night fighter, eight companies proposed twelve designs and three, including Blackburn Aircraft, received contracts to produce a prototype. Wikipedia
British twin-engined fighter prototype of 1926. Designed by Westland Aircraft it never entered service but played a useful role in the testing of the COW 37 mm gun. Wikipedia
British fighter aircraft designed and manufactured by Hawker Aircraft. The last propeller-driven fighter to serve with the Royal Navy, and one of the fastest production single reciprocating engine aircraft ever built. Wikipedia
Westland Aircraft's first attempt to produce a monoplane fighter. Privately funded and the prototype design was done in the spare time of the company's engineers. Wikipedia
Prototype British fighter aircraft of the late 1920s. Lightweight low-wing monoplane powered by a relatively low power engine. Wikipedia
British two-seat reconnaissance/fighter aircraft designed and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company as a possible replacement for the Bristol F.2 Fighter for the Royal Air Force. Unsuccessful, only four prototypes being built. Wikipedia
Transonic British jet-powered fighter aircraft that was developed by Hawker Aircraft for the Royal Air Force during the late 1940s and early 1950s. Designed to take advantage of the newly developed Rolls-Royce Avon turbojet engine and the swept wing, and was the first jet-powered aircraft produced by Hawker to be procured by the RAF. Wikipedia
Private venture submission to a 1930s British specification for a general-purpose military aircraft with two crew. Single-engined, high-wing monoplane of promise, but was destroyed early in official tests. Wikipedia
British Rolls-Royce Griffon–engined fighter aircraft designed by Supermarine to Air Ministry specification N.5/45. Further development of Supermarine's famous Spitfire and Spiteful aircraft, which by that point was a 10-year-old design following a rapid period of aviation development in history. Wikipedia
Prototype British two-seat fighter/reconnaissance aircraft of the First World War. Single engined tractor biplane. Wikipedia
British single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–40s that was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. for service with the Royal Air Force . Overshadowed in the public consciousness by the Supermarine Spitfire's role during the Battle of Britain in 1940, but the Hurricane inflicted 60 per cent of the losses sustained by the Luftwaffe in the engagement, and fought in all the major theatres of the Second World War. Wikipedia
British army co-operation and liaison aircraft produced by Westland Aircraft that was used immediately before and during the Second World War. After becoming obsolete in the army co-operation role, the aircraft's short-field performance enabled clandestine missions using small, improvised airstrips behind enemy lines to place or recover agents, particularly in occupied France with the help of the French Resistance. Wikipedia
British twin-engine heavy fighter from the Westland Aircraft Company, designed to fight at extremely high altitudes, in the stratosphere the word welkin meaning "the vault of heaven" or the upper atmosphere. Built in response to the arrival of modified Junkers Ju 86P bombers flying reconnaissance missions that suggested the Luftwaffe might attempt to re-open the bombing of England from high altitude. Wikipedia
British carrier-borne reconnaissance aircraft/fighter aircraft developed and manufactured by aircraft company Fairey Aviation. Named after the northern fulmar, a seabird native to the British Isles. Wikipedia
Hawker Aircraft - History
Hawker had its roots in the aftermath of the First World War which resulted in the bankruptcy of the Sopwith Aviation Company. Sopwith test pilot Harry Hawker and three others, including Thomas Sopwith, bought the assets of Sopwith and formed H.G. Hawker Engineering in 1920.
In 1933 the company was renamed Hawker Aircraft Limited and took advantage of the Great Depression and a strong financial position to purchase the Gloster Aircraft Company in 1934. The next year it merged with the engine and automotive company Armstrong Siddeley and its subsidiary, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft, to form Hawker Siddeley Aircraft. This group also encompassed A. V. Roe and Company Avro.
Hawker Aircraft continued to produce designs under its own name as a part of the Hawker Siddeley Aircraft, from 1955 division of Hawker Siddeley Group. The "Hawker" brand name was dropped, along with those of the sister companies, in 1963. The Hawker P.1127 was the last aircraft branded as "Hawker".
The Hawker legacy was maintained by the American company Raytheon who produced business jets (including some derived from the BAe 125, whose original design dated back to de Havilland days) under the "Hawker" name. This was the result of purchasing British Aerospace's product line in 1993. The name is currently used by Hawker Beechcraft after Raytheon's business jet interests (Hawker and Beechcraft) were acquired by investors and merged.
Read more about this topic: Hawker Aircraft
Famous quotes containing the word history :
&ldquo If usually the present age is no very long time, still, at our pleasure, or in the service of some such unity of meaning as the history of civilization, or the study of geology, may suggest, we may conceive the present as extending over many centuries, or over a hundred thousand years. &rdquo
&mdashJosiah Royce (1855)
&ldquo Systematic philosophical and practical anti-intellectualism such as we are witnessing appears to be something truly novel in the history of human culture. &rdquo
&mdashJohan Huizinga (1872)
&ldquo Racism is an ism to which everyone in the world today is exposed for or against, we must take sides. And the history of the future will differ according to the decision which we make. &rdquo
&mdashRuth Benedict (1887)
Toimintansa päättäneen Sopwith Aviation and Engineering Companyn johtajat kuten Sopwith ja koelentäjä Harry G. Hawker perustivat 15. marraskuuta 1920 H. G. Hawker Engineering Company Limitedin, jonka toimialoihin sisältyi autojen, moottoripyörien ja lentokoneiden osien valmistus Canbury Park Roadin tehtaalla Kingstonissa. Yhtiön ensimmäiset lentokoneet olivat ylätasoinen Duiker tiedustelukone, Woodcock yöhävittäjä ja koulukone, kaksipaikkainen tiedustelukone Hedgehog, yksipaikkainen hävittäjä Heron, torpedopommittaja Horsley ja tulevan pääsuunnittelijan Sydney Cammin ultrakevyt Cygnet. 
Camm suunnitteli kaksipaikkaisen kaksitasoisen päiväpommittajan Hartin, joka teki ensilentonsa Rolls-Royce FXI -moottorilla kesäkuussa 1928. Hartia valmistettiin lopulta kaikkiaan 2 506 kappaletta, mikä oli suurin määrä yksittäistä mallia sotien välillä Britanniassa. 
Yhtiön menestys johti Hawker Aircraft Limitedin perustamiseen 18. toukokuuta 1933. Gloster ostettiin kesäkuussa 1934 ja muodostettiin 1. heinäkuuta 1963 Hawker Siddeley Aircraft Company Limited, johon kuuluivat Hawkerin ja Glosterin lisäksi Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft, Armstrong Siddeley Motors, Air Service Training ja A. V. Roe. Hurricane teki ensilentonsa 6. marraskuuta 1936. Koneita valmistettiin kaikkiaan yli 14 000 kappaletta seuraavien kahdeksan vuoden aikana. 
Two Honeywell TFE731-5BR engines power the Hawker 850XP, each offering 4,660 pounds of thrust and using 277 gallons per hour (GPH). The range of the Hawker 850XP is 2,642 nm operating under NBAA IFR 4 passengers with available fuel.
The cabin volume for the Hawker 850XP is 551 cubic feet. Typical configuration features 8 passenger and 2 crew seats.
Noise Level (EPNdB)
|A.||Maximum ramp weight:||28,120 lb (12,755 kg)|
|B.||Maximum takeoff weight:||28,000 lb (12,701 kg)|
|C.||Maximum landing weight:||23,350 lb (10,592 kg)|
|D.||Maximum zero fuel weight:||18,450 lb (8,369 kg)|
|E.||Standard basic operating weight:||16,229 lb (7,361 kg)|
Collins Pro Line 21 avionics suite with four 8×10 inch adaptive screens displaying navigation terrain awareness warning systems (TAWS), weather reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM) and enhanced ground proximity warning systems (EGPWS).
Contact Us at +1 919 941 8400 or [email protected] to request a custom range report including detailed aircraft comparisons.
From Graces Guide
The Hawker Fury was a British biplane fighter aircraft used by the Royal Air Force in the 1930s. It was a fast, agile aircraft, and holds the distinction of being the first interceptor in RAF service to be capable of more than 200 MPH. The Fury is the fighter counterpart to the Hawker Hart light bomber.
The Hawker Fury was a development of the earlier Hawker: F.20/27 prototype fighter, replacing the F.20/27's radial engine with the new Rolls-Royce F.XI V-12 engine (later known as the Rolls-Royce Kestrel), which was also used by Hawker's new light bomber, the Hawker Hart.
The new fighter prototype, known as the Hawker: Hornet, first flew at Brooklands, Surrey, in March 1929. The Hornet was a single-engined biplane, with single bay wings, initially powered by a 420 hp (313 kW) Rolls-Royce F.XIC engine enclosed by a smooth, streamlined cowling, but was quickly re-engined with a 480 hp (358 kW) Kestrel IS. It was evaluated against the similarly powered Fairey Firefly II, being preferred because of its better handling and its all metal structure compared with the mainly wooden construction of the Firefly.
The Hornet was purchased by the Air Ministry at the start of 1930, and was subject to further evaluation, with a small initial production order for 21 aircraft (to be designated Hawker Fury - as the Air Ministry wanted fighter names that "reflected ferocity") placed during 1930.
The Fury I made its maiden flight at Brooklands with chief test pilot George Bulman at the controls on 25 March 1931.
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.
Typhoon, in full Hawker Typhoon, British fighter and ground-attack aircraft used in the latter half of World War II.
Conceived as a replacement for the Hawker Hurricane, the Typhoon was a low-wing monoplane designed to a January 1938 specification. Powered by a liquid-cooled, 24-cylinder, 2,200-horsepower Napier Sabre engine, it first flew in early 1940. Intended to be an interceptor, the Typhoon was the first British fighter to exceed 400 miles (650 km) per hour, but its thick wings caused compressibility problems that sharply restricted its performance at high altitudes. In addition, the Sabre’s enormous power posed problems that required extensive redesign, so that the Typhoon did not enter production until May 1941. Typhoons were committed to combat that September to counter the German Fw 190 at low and medium altitudes, but the deployment was premature. Engine unreliability and catastrophic tail structure failures forced additional redesign, and the problems were not fully ironed out until late 1942. Now armed with four wing-mounted 0.8-inch (20-mm) cannons in place of the original 12 0.303-inch (7.7-mm) machine guns, the Typhoon proved to be an excellent low-level fighter-bomber, especially when equipped with underwing launching rails for eight 60-pound (27.5-kg) rockets and shackles for a pair of 500- or 1,000-pound (225- or 450-kg) bombs. It had a maximum speed of 417 miles (670 km) per hour and a range of about 1,000 miles (1,600 km).
The Typhoon was used extensively in preparations for the D-Day landings of June 6, 1944. It earned a reputation as a formidable destroyer of tanks and motorized transport in the Normandy campaign and in the subsequent pursuit of German forces across France and the Low Countries. Typhoons were also effective in shooting down German V-1 “ buzz bombs.” Some 3,000 were manufactured, most of them by Gloster Aircraft Company.
While resolving the Typhoon’s design problems, Hawker obtained approval for an extensively redesigned version, the Tempest, that first flew in September 1942 and entered squadron service in the spring of 1944. The Tempest, with a larger wing of much thinner section, was the fastest piston-engined fighter of World War II at low altitudes, capable of 435 miles (700 km) per hour in level flight and over 500 miles (800 km) per hour in a shallow dive. Despite initial problems, it was an excellent low- and medium-altitude fighter and, like the Typhoon, was effective in intercepting buzz bombs. Some 800 Tempests were produced before the war in Europe ended in May 1945.
The town of Hawker was proclaimed on 1 July 1880 and named after George Collins Hawker, born in London in 1819. Hawker arrived in South Australia on the Lysander in September 1840. A year later he established the Bungaree run with his brothers and entered parliament in 1858, becoming speaker in 1860. He returned to England in 1865 and remained there until 1874. A year after his return to South Australia he was re-elected to parliament and served until his retirement in 1883.
Before the official proclamation, the Hawker area had already been taken up on pastoral leases, from as early as the 1850s, by such stations as Arkaba, Holowiliena, Warcowie, Wilpena and Wonoka. The town of Hawker was laid out, at a point on the centre-line of the Port Augusta and Government Gums railway, 65 miles 4,260 links from Port Augusta, to serve the new railway line which reached the new town in June 1880. It was expected to become a major service centre for both the railway and the pastoral and agricultural industries. At the first land sales, held on 15 July 1880, some of the allotments brought very high prices. The highest price of $492 was paid for the corner block nearest the railway on which the Royal Hotel now stands.
Other blocks which went for more than the usual price were bought by William Powell who paid $295 and G. Jackson from Cradock bought a site for $200 to start a shop. H. Gadd, another storekeeper, paid $144 for his town site. One site was marked for a police station but although the town had a Mounted Trooper in 1880 it did not have a police station, cell or anything else. It only had a post with a chain to secure an arrested suspect.
The railway station, built similar to those at Port Augusta and Beltana, was completed in 1885 by Bacon & Brewer at a cost of $2,500. It was the second station on the Great Northern Railway between Port Augusta and Darwin. The building was last used for railway purposes in 1956 when the new standard gauge line by-passed the town. From then on Hawker was served as a branch line from Quorn with one train a week. Even this service was cancelled in 1970. The Great Northern Railway, or The Ghan, as it became known still only goes as far as Alice Springs.
Although Hawker's progress was slow, some large buildings were completed in the early days. In 1880 the first Methodist Church was finished but being a wooden building it was replaced by a stone building in 1884. By 1882 Hawker had its Lodge and the Royal Hotel was open with James Waters as its first publican. That same year a stone post office was completed at a cost of almost $1,700. In 1883 it even had a brass band.
From as early as 1880 Hawker had a Provisional school with Charles Lakeman as its first teacher. At a public meeting in October 1881 it was decided to petition the government for a substantial school building. Tenders were called in January 1883 and a stone school building was completed by the end of that year at a cost of $2340. When it opened, with W.H. Harry as its first head teacher it had sixty-three students. By 1888 Hawker became the centre of the School District, looking after Chapmanton, Hookina, Willow Plains, Wilson and Wonoka. Its Board of Advice was made up of Samuel J. Jones, Chairman and Doctor Siegwardt Bruehl, Walter Pyman, Peter O'Connor, David McNeil, Gustav A. Groth and John Edgeloe as members. Eventually the Hawker school became the largest in the district and is still in use today. John Edgeloe was later appointed Justice of the Peace and a member of the Northern Road Board.
In 1888, after the proclamation of the Hawker District Council, S.J. Jones became its first chairman followed by John Edgeloe who also became a prominent member of the school, church and town community. On 4 January 1900, John Edgeloe, who already had been appointed a Justice of the Peace, became now a member of the North and Midland District Land Board. Many years later, George Edgeloe, farmer of Chapmanton enrolled his daughter Phyllis Hope, born 18 November 1899, at the Hawker School on 20 January 1913 and his son Clifton John, born 16 December 1910, on 2 September 1919.
In 1884, the town had two flourmills, producing mainly for the inland market. Its store room was used for large public functions for many years. By 1886 the town's population was more than 350 people who were living in 56 houses. It had a Post, Telegraph and Money Order Office, a Savings Bank and an Commercial Bank and a Local Court. Some of the better known residents of that time were, A.J. Scott, Postmaster, George Donaldson, S.M., R. Laidlaw, publican of the Royal Hotel and George Lord publican of the Wonoka Hotel.
The Hawker Institute was established in 1889 but it did not have its own building until August 1893. After most denominations had established their presence, and church buildings, The Salvation Army made its appearance in 1890. In September 1895 Bishop Harmer held a confirmation service in St Michael's Church during which three male and twelve female candidates were confirmed. It was also during this year that Arch Burnett was born at Hawker. He would later write 'Wilfull Murder in the Outback'.
Having experienced several drought years between 1880 and 1889, no one worried about the almost wash out of the yearly race meeting in 1889. With a total rainfall of 55 centimetres, farmers expected, and got, a bumper crop that year and the next six years. After 1896 rainfall once again was below average and farmers faced some of the poorest years on record.
Rabbits became a serious problem and from 1890 a start was made with rabbit-proof fencing around individual properties. As a result of an increase in the price of copper during the 1890s, several mines in the Northern Flinders Ranges re-opened and Hawker gained some badly needed business from teams passing through supplying the mines and returning with ore to the railway station.
One of Hawker's best known women was Lucy Ann Ward (nee Priest). Born in 1851 she married Henry Charles Ward in 1878 and lived at Willochra, where their first daughter was born, before settling down at Hawker. After their second daughter died and an adopted girl as well, they adopted another girl in 1900. In Hawker Lucy Ward opened up her house to outback women in the final stage of their confinement. Word of her devotion soon spread and many more women applied for admission. To accommodate them they had several rooms built onto the house which became known as The Gables.
Women who stayed at her Lying-in-house came from Arkaba, Beltana, Blinman, Chapmanton, Cradock, Farina, Gordon, Marree, Uroonda, Warcowie, Willow Plains and Yednalue. Nearly five hundred babies were born at The Gables before the opening in 1925 of the present Hawker Hospital.
Another Hawker legend, a man who has contributed for more than fifty years to Hawker, the Flinders Ranges, and the numerous people who depended on him, or his services, was Fred Teaque.