History of R-11- S88 - History

History of R-11- S88 - History


(Submarine No. 88: dp. 569 (surf.), 680 (subm.), 1. 186'2"
b. 18'; dr. 14'6", s. 13.5 k. (surf.), 10.5 k. (subm.); cpl. 30,
a. 1 3", 421"tt.;cl R-1)

R-l l (Submarine No. 88) was laid down by the Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, Mass., 18 March 1918, launched 21 July 1919, sponsored by Miss Dorothy Batehelder, and commissioned 5 September 1919, Lt. Comdr. Charles S. Alden in command.

R-l l, with a crew of only two men for 2 months following commissioning, remained inactive at Boston. Then, with the new year, 1920, she oommeneed training cruises along the New England coast and, in April, to Bermuda. On completion of training cruises, she returned to New London, whence she sailed 31 May for the Pacific. Designated SS-88 in July, she arrived at Pearl Harbor on 4 August. Homeported there for the next 10 years, she conducted operations in the Hawaiian area; searched for missing ships, including the seagoing tug C~estoga, and planes; participated in tactical exercises; and engaged in fleet maneuvers.

On 12 December 1930, the it-boat departed Pearl Harbor for the last time and steamed east to San Diego, whence she continued on through the Panama Canal, to New London. She returned to that Thames River base 9 February 1931 and for the remainder of the decade seryed as a training ship, primarily for the Submarine School at New London and occasionally for NROTC units in the southern New England area. Transferred to Key West, 1 June 1941, R-ll continued her training ship duties throughout the remainder of her career.

Decommissioned 5 September 1945, R-l l was struck from the Navy list 11 October 1945, sold to Macey O. Smith

Miami, Fla., 13 March 1946; and scrapped in 1948.


Hollow-fluted bamboo. Record-shattering distance casting rods. The early use of materials such as fiberglass and graphite. Pioneering, harnessing and refining the unmatched power and performance of boron/graphite composite. These are just a few examples of how, for over 85 years now, Winston has been responsible for some of the most groundbreaking advances in fly fishing. Our company’s history isn’t just marked by dates, but by innovations.

While 1929 may be an infamous year in financial circles, it is one that is cherished by anglers worldwide. For that’s the year Robert Winther and Lew Stoner started what is known today as the R.L. Winston Rod Company.

Originally calling their San Francisco-based company the Winther-Stoner Manufacturing Co., they later combined elements from both their names, and renamed it the R.L. Winston Rod Company. Technicians at heart, they began the Winston tradition of archiving each rod with a journal entry and a serial number. Almost immediately, the bamboo rods these two men built earned a reputation for performance and exceptional quality.

1930 s

In 1933, Robert Winther sold his interest in Winston to employee Red Loskot, an accomplished fly fisherman and member of the Golden Gate Angling Club. The following year, Lew Stoner developed his patented hollow-fluted rod design for use in tournament casting competition.

The Winstons built with this design were lightweight, very powerful, and would soon shatter a number of world distance casting records. Primo Livenais used a Winston surf rod in 1936 to break the world record with a 623 foot cast. In 1938, Marvin Hedge used a Winston to break the world fly casting record by 36 feet.

1940 s & 1950 s

In 1945, Doug Merrick stopped by the shop to buy a new rod and also found himself a job at Winston. In 1953, he purchased Red Loskot’s interest. When Lew Stoner died unexpectedly in 1957, Merrick became sole owner.

Winston continued to set world casting records at the Golden Gate Anglers Club led by John “Buddy” Tarantino. In the early 1950s, Winston incorporated the casting characteristics of its famous hollow-fluted rods into a new material: fiberglass.

1960 s

In the 1960s, Merrick’s penchant for quality and his exceptional rod building skills continued to raise Winston’s standard of excellence, already the highest in the industry. While continuing to adhere to many of Stoner’s developments, he also made slight changes to the tapers to create more responsive rods than those that designed for distance casting.

In 1967, renowned angler and hotelier Charles Ritz, president of the International Fario Club in Paris, presented Merrick with a medal for “Outstanding work and knowledge pertaining to split bamboo rods.”

1970 s & 1980 s

Tom Morgan purchased the company from Merrick in 1973, and a year later took on a partner to assist him with bamboo operations as he refined and concentrated on the company’s fiberglass and initial graphite efforts.

In 1975, Winston offered a new line of 2 and 3-piece graphite rods that met with great success. In 1976, the decision was made to move the company from San Francisco to Twin Bridges, Montana in order to be near the world-class trout fishing of the Beaverhead, Big Hole and Jefferson rivers.

1990 s

In 1991, Winston was bought by David Ondaatje who, over the next several years, worked closely with Tom Morgan to learn about Winston rod building and design.

Faced with sourcing challenges due to a growing demand for graphite blanks, David realized the only way for the company to grow and maximize quality would be to gain complete control over all steps of the manufacturing process. In 1994, the company began rolling its own blanks and a year later, moved to a new rod facility in Twin Bridges specifically designed for rod building and outfitted with state of the art equipment. Following the move, Winston introduced a number of industry-leading rod designs, including LT 5-piece trout rods and the first two series based on boron/graphite composite: BL5 and XTR.

2000 s

In the 2000s, Winston innovation became centered on boron/graphite composite, and a more responsive and dynamic second generation of this rod building material was utilized.

During this time, the phenomenally successful Boron IIx, Boron II-MX and Boron IIt series were introduced. These award-winning designs redefined the fast-action category by combining power and strength with accuracy, responsiveness and very light weight.

2010 – 2015

In 2011, Winston introduced the Boron III X series, and anglers all over the world began to experience the benefits offered by third generation boron/graphite composite.

To complement Boron III X, Winston developed the Boron III SX series, which won the “Best Saltwater Rod” category at the 2012 IFTD show. Boron III LS light line rods and Boron III TH two-handed rods followed in 2014.

2015 brought the introduction of Boron III TH Microspey rods, which combine the power of a spey rod with the finesse of a trout rod. Designed specifically for trout fishing, these Two-Handed 3,4 and 5 weight rods add a new and exciting dimension to the sport.

Continuing it’s tradition of innovation, Winston introduces the new Boron III Plus fast action/high line speed rod series for powerful fish with new ‘shooting guides.’

This new Boron III Plus rod series includes a full lineup of Saltwater rods (6wt-12wt), Jungle rods (8wt and 9wt), and two powerful Freshwater rods (5wt and 6wt).

For 2017, Winston introduced the WINSTON AIR™. A new line of super premium, ultra-lightweight, all around fly rods that offer truly remarkable performance. Winston AIR rods feature a revolutionary new design that combines our new SuperSilica resin system with high modulus Boron for significantly less weight, more liveliness, an extremely broad casting range, and higher responsiveness for optimum presentation.

Also introduced in 2017 were Boron III Super 10 rods ten foot rods specifically designed for high sticking and European style nymph fishing.

In 2019 is our Saltwater AIR series – lightweight saltwater rods with Winston Boron III technology that are easy to cast. The new Saltwater AIR series is very light and allows for unprecedented fast recovery, for any length of cast.

Also new are Winston PURE light line rods. Ideal for light nymph and dry fly fishing applications, PURE rods are for those who prefer to fish with a light touch.

New for 2021, Winston is introducing the new AIR 2 freshwater rods. Utilizing a the S-2000 graphite material, HSR resin, and boron technology the AIR 2 rods is a rod heaping with features, and high on performance. Generating higher line speeds, AIR 2 rods have a faster recovery rate, and a new, modern quick and smooth action without sacrificing feel and enjoyment. For those days when you can only have one rod, this is the one they are amazing.


Texas became a state in December 1845, participating in its first presidential election in 1848. Texas seceded from the Union in 1861 and was not included in the 1864 or 1868 elections. From 1872 through 1976, Texas went Democratic in the vast majority of elections. However, that changed in 1980, and Texas has sided with the Republicans ever since. Having a Bush on the ticket each election from 1980 through 2004 (except 1996) helped make Texas a reliably “red” state. In 2020, Donald Trump won the state by 6.5% over Joe Biden, the narrowest margin since 1996.

Texas’ population has grown rapidly in recent decades, and it has added two or more electoral votes in each Census since 1980. The 2020 Census population of 29.1 million was up four million from 2010. No state had a larger numeric increase in the past decade. The state's 40 electoral votes are second only to California’s 54. This large electoral prize, coupled with shifting demographics, will likely make Texas a major battleground in upcoming presidential elections.

Mazda: A History Of Survival Through Innovation

Mazda's history could be described as a story of survival, along with a deep sense of community and pride. This brand, originally a manufacturer of machine tools, is now recognized as one of the world’s most popular automakers. The company has produced over 40 million vehicles since its inception, but to truly understand the brand's history Mazda invited dozens of automotive journalists and analysts from around the globe to experience a 4-day immersion program in its heritage.

Photo courtesy of Mazda North America

The program started off with the dramatic unveiling of Mazda’s RX-Vision concept at the Tokyo Motor Show. The front-engine, rear-wheel drive sports car concept arguably stole the show in Tokyo, as it was one of the most anticipated and talked-about reveals. Many would argue it's been a long time coming, but the concept's universal reaction confirms it was well worth the wait. When Mazda CEO Masamichi Kogai was asked if he would consider using a non-rotary engine to speed up production, assuming the RX-Vision does in fact go into production, Kogai stated, “The only engine we can think of in that car is a rotary engine.” Given the RX-Vision's low-slung design it's likely no other engine configuration would work.

With Toyota showing off a Supra successor concept in early 2014, along with the recent return of the Acura NSX, import enthusiasts are understandably hopeful that both, along with the RX-Vision, will be in showroom's soon.

Mazda’s Historic Commitment to Succeed

Photo courtesy of Kelley Blue Book

Mazda moved from manufacturing machine tools to the automotive space in 1931 with a 3-wheeled truck known as the Mazda-go DA. Just 14 years later the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. The hypocenter was only a few miles away from Mazda headquarters and, despite losing nearly half of the city's population, Mazda knew it had to play an active role in the redevelopment of Hiroshima. Amazingly, just weeks after the bombing, the Mazda-go DA was back in production.

Photo courtesy of Mazda North America

The brand was challenged once again in the 1960s. Mazda's independence was at stake when the Japanese government decided to consolidate automotive manufacturing. The thinking was that each manufacture would focus on a different vehicle segment rather than being a full-line company. Mazda saw this as an opportunity to differentiate itself from the other Japanese automakers. It decided to develop and enhance the rotary engine technology first conceived in the 1920s by a young German engineer named Dr. Felix Wankel. The decision to focus on rotary development paid off, allowing Mazda to remain an independent car company. After years of R&D Mazda began selling the world’s first twin-rotary engine in the 1967 Cosmo Sport, a 2,072-pound car with a 4-speed manual transmission and a 115 mph top speed.

Photo courtesy of Mazda North America

Just 1,176 Cosmo Sports were built between 1967 and 1972, but we were invited to drive several of them around Mazda's secret test track at the Mine Proving Grounds in Nagao, Japan. Very few Cosmo Sports ever made it to the U.S., though Jay Leno owns one of them. The experience of driving such an iconic vehicle from Mazda's history, as well as sharing the car's enthusiasm with Cosmo Sport owners’ at the track, gave us all perspective on Mazda's longstanding approach to passionate vehicle design.

Photo courtesy of Mazda North America

Over the past few years Mazda has invested heavily in its SKYACTIV engineering. SKYACTIV is a series of technologies used to minimize fuel consumption without compromising overall engine performance. This approach goes beyond engine design, incorporating transmission and body enhancements as well. Currently, the CX-5, Mazda6 and select Mazda3 models utilize SKYACTIV technology, with the company planning to leverage SKYACTIV across its entire model line in the near future.

Photo courtesy of Mazda North America

SKYACTIV reinforces the motto engrained in the company’s DNA, “if it's not worth driving, it's not worth building.” At the Mine Proving Grounds we also had the opportunity to drive the first three generations of the rotary powered RX-7s. While these three generations were produced between 1978 and 2002 the consistency of every RX-7's driving character reminded us of Mazda’s ongoing commitment to building performance oriented, fuel efficient and fun-to-drive vehicles.

Photo courtesy of Kelley Blue Book

Looking ahead, to self-driving or autonomous technology, Mazda CEO Masamichi Kogai plans to stay true to his brand's vision of connecting with the driver. Kogai believes drivers want to remain active in their overall driving experience, and while the ultimate role of self-driving technology is anyone’s guess Mazda's commitment to its historic values appears steadfast. Based on the positive feedback Mazda owners deliver though Kelley Blue Book's survey data (seen in the world cloud above), it seems Mazda is delivering on that promise.

As a lifelong car enthusiast I’ve strived to combine my passion for personal transportation with my writing skills and business acumen. This desire has resulted in a

Touch and Feel History: Huge R-11 Classic Car Museum Auction Raises Money for the Helen DeVos Children’s Hospital Foundation

Byron Center, Mich. (PRWEB) April 14, 2010

The R-11 Classic Car Museum, an eclectic collection of vintage to collectable cars and trucks, is set to be auctioned off on Saturday April 17th at Live/Online auction consisting of over 125 classic and collector cars, this museum has something for everyone in museum quality. According to Scott Miedema COO of Miedema Auctioneering, “It is one of the largest collections ever sold from West Michigan, and it is unique because of its diversity. In addition we are expected to raise money for our local children’s hospital.”

The R-11 Classic Car Museum was home to many famous and legendary cars for decades. The museum has been shut down, due to the side effects of the Sturgis Iron and Metal bankruptcy. The ever shifting metal market caused a sudden drop in the market which caused a huge overnight drop in metal values Mr. Ralph Levin at that time had to file for bankruptcy protection and eventually the company was liquidated. The museum building was part of the bankruptcy so these cars must be sold now to the highest bidder. The museum featured vehicles such as Bentleys, Mercedes, Rolls, Viper, TA, Lincolns, Cadillac’s, BMW, Jags, Mack Trucks, Street Rods, Customs, and Originals!

There are some very unusual vehicles including the actual 1996 Acura Integra that was drove by Ja Rule in the Movie “The Fast and the Furious.” There is also a 1979 AMC Pacer identical to the one in the movie “Wayne’s World.” There is a pre war 1942 Lincoln continental with huge flare fenders and a post war 1948 Lincoln continental convertible, (1 of only 452 ever made) and it’s in pristine condition. There is a 1901 Oldsmobile with bicycle type tires, and a custom car rumored to be in “The Cannonball Run” movie. A true one of a kind vehicle that includes the molds used to make it. Jaguars, Mercedes, Alpha Romeo, old trucks, cars from 1920’s, 30’s, 40’s, 50’s round out the list.

This live auction will help out the Helen DeVos Children’s Hospital Foundation with 100% of gate admissions donated to charity. With an amazing line up of vehicles from the early 1900’s to the late 1990’s everyone is sure to have a great time! Admission is only $2 for children, $4 for adults and $10 max for immediate family and all gate proceeds go directly to the Helen DeVos Children’s Hospital Foundation. Scott says “We wanted to affiliate with a local charity and the Helen DeVos Children’s Hospital Foundation was a perfect way to keep monies raised in West Michigan.”



Maternal metabolic surveillance should be directed at detecting hyperglycemia severe enough to increase risks to the fetus. Daily self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) appears to be superior to intermittent office monitoring of plasma glucose. For women treated with insulin, limited evidence indicates that postprandial monitoring is superior to preprandial monitoring. However, the success of either approach depends on the glycemic targets that are set and achieved.

Urine glucose monitoring is not useful in GDM. Urine ketone monitoring may be useful in detecting insufficient caloric or carbohydrate intake in women treated with calorie restriction.

Maternal surveillance should include blood pressure and urine protein monitoring to detect hypertensive disorders.

Increased surveillance for pregnancies at risk for fetal demise is appropriate, particularly when fasting glucose levels exceed 105 mg/dl (5.8 mmol/l) or pregnancy progresses past term. The initiation, frequency, and specific techniques used to assess fetal well-being will depend on the cumulative risk the fetus bears from GDM and any other medical/obstetric conditions present.

Assessment for asymmetric fetal growth by ultrasonography, particularly in early third trimester, may aid in identifying fetuses that can benefit from maternal insulin therapy (see below).


All women with GDM should receive nutritional counseling, by a registered dietitian when possible, consistent with the recommendations by the American Diabetes Association. Individualization of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) depending on maternal weight and height is recommended. MNT should include the provision of adequate calories and nutrients to meet the needs of pregnancy and should be consistent with the maternal blood glucose goals that have been established. Noncaloric sweeteners may be used in moderation.

For obese women (BMI >30 kg/m 2 ), a 30–33% calorie restriction (to ∼25 kcal/kg actual weight per day) has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia and plasma triglycerides with no increase in ketonuria (2). Restriction of carbohydrates to 35–40% of calories has been shown to decrease maternal glucose levels and improve maternal and fetal outcomes (3).

Insulin is the pharmacologic therapy that has most consistently been shown to reduce fetal morbidities when added to MNT. Selection of pregnancies for insulin therapy can be based on measures of maternal glycemia with or without assessment of fetal growth characteristics. When maternal glucose levels are used, insulin therapy is recommended when MNT fails to maintain self-monitored glucose at the following levels:

1-h postprandial plasma glucose

2-h postprandial plasma glucose

Measurement of the fetal abdominal circumference early in the third trimester can identify a large subset of infants with no excess risk of macrosomia in the absence of maternal insulin therapy. This approach has been tested primarily in pregnancies with maternal fasting serum glucose levels <105 mg/dl (5.8 mmol/l).

Human insulin should be used when insulin is prescribed, and SMBG should guide the doses and timing of the insulin regimen. The use of insulin analogs has not been adequately tested in GDM.

Oral glucose-lowering agents have generally not been recommended during pregnancy. However, one randomized, unblinded clinical trial compared the use of insulin and glyburide in women with GDM who were not able to meet glycemic goals on MNT (4). Treatment with either agent resulted in similar perinatal outcomes. All patients were beyond the first trimester of pregnancy at the initiation of therapy. Glyburide is not FDA approved for the treatment of GDM and further studies are needed in a larger patient population to establish its safety.

Programs of moderate physical exercise have been shown to lower maternal glucose concentrations in women with GDM. Although the impact of exercise on neonatal complications awaits rigorous clinical trials, the beneficial glucose-lowering effects warrant a recommendation that women without medical or obstetrical contraindications be encouraged to start or continue a program of moderate exercise as a part of treatment for GDM.

GDM is not of itself an indication for cesarean delivery or for delivery before 38 completed weeks of gestation. Prolongation of gestation past 38 weeks increases the risk of fetal macrosomia without reducing cesarean rates, so that delivery during the 38th week is recommended unless obstetric considerations dictate otherwise.

Breast-feeding, as always, should be encouraged in women with GDM.

ISA88 Purpose

To provide standards and recommended practices as appropriate for the design and specification of batch control systems as used in the process control industries.

For information on obtaining the published standards listed above as well as ISA88 technical reports, select the "See all ISA88 Standards" link.

ISA88 does much of its work electronically, but also holds face-to-face meetings. For more information on ISA88, contact Charley Robinson, ISA Standards.

7. Before he made his famous ascent of Mount Kennedy, he had never climbed a mountain before.

Hundreds of schools, parks and buildings were named (or renamed) for John F. Kennedy in the wake of his death, but one posthumous honor in particular held special meaning for Bobby Kennedy. When a 14,000-foot mountain in Canada’s Kluane National Park was to be named Mount Kennedy, RFK was determined to become the first person to climb to its peak. There was just one problem—Kennedy was a strong athlete but had practically no rock climbing experience. He jokingly told friends that his preparation for the trek consisted of little more than climbing to the top of the stairs of his Hickory Hill home and shouting for help.

Traveling with a seasoned team of climbers, Kennedy’s group tackled the challenge in April 1965. As they approached the summit, Kennedy broke away from the group and approached the mountain’s peak himself. Once there, he deposited several JFK-related items, including a copy of his inaugural address, a memorial medallion and even one of President Kennedy’s World War II-era PT-boat tie clips.

The Allegations Against R. Kelly: An Abridged History

R. Kelly arrives at the Leighton Criminal Courthouse in Chicago for a pretrial hearing in early May.

Nuccio DiNuzzo/Getty Images

Updated Nov. 25 at 5:00 p.m. ET

R. Kelly is no stranger to unsettling allegations.

The R&B superstar born Robert Kelly ushered in 2019 dogged by a slew of damaging headlines — prompted by TV's Surviving R. Kelly. But the roots of the broad case laid out in the six-part Lifetime docuseries, filled as it is with claims of abuse and statutory rape, date back about a quarter century at least.

Kelly has been the subject of investigations, indictments, lawsuits and disavowals — and through it all, he has asserted that he has not committed any wrongdoing.

What follows is an attempt to explain how 25 years of controversy led to this moment. Not every notable date is included in this timeline. In particular, the many lawsuits against Kelly — beginning in the mid-1990s and continuing through the present day — have been left out for the sake of clarity.

Jump to the story behind a specific date by clicking on the date in the list below, or simply scroll down to begin at the beginning.

      R. Kelly, then 27 years old, marries Aaliyah, then 15 Chicago Sun-Times prints first allegations of sex with minors Chicago police reveal investigation into alleged child pornography Kelly indicted on 21 counts of child pornography Trial begins in Kelly's case in Chicago

    R. Kelly and Aaliyah's marriage certificate, seen here in an image obtained by Chicago member station WBEZ, was issued by Cook County, Ill., in 1994. WBEZ/Flickr hide caption

    R. Kelly and Aaliyah's marriage certificate, seen here in an image obtained by Chicago member station WBEZ, was issued by Cook County, Ill., in 1994.

      Kelly is acquitted on all counts BuzzFeed publishes stories of women in Kelly's alleged sex "cult" Kelly releases 19-minute song, "I Admit" Kelly's ex-wife accuses him of physical abuse Lifetime begins airing Surviving R. Kelly docuseries Popular pressure on R. Kelly escalates More accusers tell their stories publicly Kelly is charged on 10 counts of sexual abuse Kelly is arrested again — this time for failure to pay child support Kelly is freed from jail again Gloria Allred alleges existence of another tape with underage girls Kelly is charged a second time in Illinois on new sexual assault and abuse charges Kelly pleads not guilty to new charges

    R. Kelly performs at the opening ceremony of the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah. That very same day, Feb. 8, the Chicago police revealed their investigation into allegations that the singer had filmed himself having sexual relations with an underage girl. Jed Jacobsohn/Getty Images hide caption

    R. Kelly performs at the opening ceremony of the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah. That very same day, Feb. 8, the Chicago police revealed their investigation into allegations that the singer had filmed himself having sexual relations with an underage girl.

    Jed Jacobsohn/Getty Images

      Federal prosecutors unseal new indictments against Kelly in Illinois and New York Kelly pleads not guilty to the Illinois federal charges judge orders him held without bond Kelly pleads not guilty to the New York federal charges judge denies him bail Prosecutors in Hennepin County, Minn. file two criminal charges against Kelly Live-in girlfriend Joycelyn Savage alleges sexual and physical abuse as well as two forced abortions

    R. Kelly listens as Judge Karla Wright sets his bail at the Polk County Courthouse in Bartow, Fla., in June 2002. Kelly was arrested at his Florida home after Chicago police placed his arrest warrant in the national crime database. George McGinn/Getty Images hide caption

    R. Kelly listens as Judge Karla Wright sets his bail at the Polk County Courthouse in Bartow, Fla., in June 2002. Kelly was arrested at his Florida home after Chicago police placed his arrest warrant in the national crime database.

    George McGinn/Getty Images

    Aug. 31, 1994

    R. Kelly, then 27 years old, briefly marries Aaliyah, then 15

    The secret ceremony in Chicago comes less than a year after R. Kelly's debut solo album landed in the Billboard 200 — and less than six months after Kelly produced Aaliyah's debut album, Age Ain't Nothing But A Number.

    That title would prove apt: As the magazine Vibe reveals just months later, the official Illinois wedding certificate falsified Aaliyah's age, listing Kelly's young protégée as 18. (Demetrius Smith, a former tour manager and personal assistant to R. Kelly, later told the Surviving R. Kelly team that he had documents forged for the two and that Aaliyah appeared to be scared at the ceremony.)

    Within months, the marriage is annulled, but it remains a subject of frequent questions — both for Aaliyah, who dies in a plane crash in 2001, and for Kelly, who has described their relationship as "deep friends" but has avoided commenting further.

    "Well, because of Aaliyah's passing, as I've always said, out of respect for her mother who's sick and her father who's passed, I will never have that conversation with anyone. Out of respect for Aaliyah, and her mother and father who has asked me not to personally," he told GQ in 2016. "But I can tell you I loved her, I can tell you she loved me, we was very close."

    Dec. 21, 2000

    Chicago Sun-Times prints the first allegations of sex with minors

    The singer is about to turn 34 when Chicago Sun-Times reporters Jim DeRogatis and Abdon M. Pallasch publish a story alleging that Kelly is using his fame to meet girls as young as 15 years old and then coerce them into having sex with him. At least two of those girls say that they met him at Kenwood Academy, a public high school on Chicago's South Side that Kelly had attended before dropping out and where he is alleged to have returned again and again to pick up young women.

    R. Kelly leaves the Cook County criminal court in Chicago on June 13, 2008, greeting supporters and onlookers after a jury found him not guilty on all counts in his child pornography trial. Nam Y. Huh/AP hide caption

    R. Kelly leaves the Cook County criminal court in Chicago on June 13, 2008, greeting supporters and onlookers after a jury found him not guilty on all counts in his child pornography trial.

    According to the Sun-Times, by this point Chicago police have investigated Kelly twice on suspicion of having sex with an underage girl but dropped the investigations because the girl wouldn't cooperate. The article also notes, "Kelly is hardly the first celebrity to be accused of taking advantage of underage girls. Gary Glitter, Rob Lowe, Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Roman Polanski, Rolling Stone Bill Wyman and even the legendary Errol Flynn all have been written about in this paper and others for allegedly having trysts with minors."

    The Sun-Times report is published within weeks of Kelly — who has already sold more than 20 million albums — releasing his fifth album, TP-2.com, which goes to No. 1 on the Billboard 200 album chart.

    Feb. 8, 2002

    Chicago police reveal investigation into alleged child pornography

    Draped in a star-spangled robe and surrounded by tens of thousands of screaming fans, R. Kelly appears to be hitting a high note in his career: performing as part of the opening ceremony for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.

    The very same day, more than 1,000 miles away, things begin heading in a very different direction for the singer, as Chicago police reveal they have opened an investigation into an approximately three-year-old videotape that purports to show him having sex and engaging in a variety of lewd acts with an underage girl. (Despite the alleged age of the girl in the video, Kelly would not be charged with statutory rape.)

    Kelly quickly and vehemently denies that it is him in the video, which appears to show him with a girl who would have been in her early teens at the time of the filming. The video had been sent anonymously to the Chicago Sun-Times, which had published child sex allegations against the singer nearly two years earlier.

    "It's crap, and that's how we're going to treat it," Kelly says in an interview held with a local TV station before his Olympic performance.

    June 5, 2002

    Kelly indicted on 21 counts of child pornography

    Just four months after the police probe is revealed, R. Kelly finds himself in handcuffs outside his holiday home in Florida.

    A grand jury in Cook County, Ill., has indicted Kelly on 21 counts of child pornography related to the videotape. The charges include seven counts each of directing the taping, producing the video and enticing the underage girl into performing illicit acts.

    Kitti Jones, a former girlfriend of the singer, tells her story in Surviving R. Kelly. Jones discussed her allegations in an interview with Rolling Stone in October 2017. Courtesy of Lifetime hide caption

    Kitti Jones, a former girlfriend of the singer, tells her story in Surviving R. Kelly. Jones discussed her allegations in an interview with Rolling Stone in October 2017.

    "Sexual predators are a scourge on society," Cook County State's Attorney Richard Devine says in a statement released on June 5. "This indictment should send a clear message that illicit acts with minor children will not be tolerated in the community."

    One day later, Kelly is formally charged in a Florida courtroom.

    That state would also charge Kelly with an additional 12 counts of creating child pornography, alleging that during his arrest, police found a camera with new images showing sex with an underage girl. Those charges would be dropped after a judge found that the camera was improperly seized. Seven of the original 21 charges in Chicago would also eventually be dropped in 2004, after prosecutors acknowledged that those counts pertained to a law that wasn't passed until after the alleged taping.

    May 9, 2008

    Trial begins in Kelly's case in Chicago

    After posting bail in 2002, Kelly spends the next six years continuing to perform as his lawyers wrangle with prosecutors on his behalf. During this stretch, he continues headlining tour stops and recording new music — even snagging six Grammy nominations. More than half a decade passes before his trial begins.

    "The case has dragged on for seemingly bizarre reasons," Time magazine reporter Steven Gray explained to NPR in 2008. "Just last December, R. Kelly failed to make a scheduled court appearance because his tour bus was stopped speeding by Utah authorities and he couldn't make it to court the next day. One time, Judge Gaughan, the presiding judge, he fell off a ladder and hurt himself so he was out for a while. Another time . one of the prosecutors had a baby, so that also caused them postponement."

    The trial begins in late spring. If convicted on all charges, Kelly faces the prospect of 15 years in prison.

    June 13, 2008

    Kelly is acquitted on all counts

    Arguments in court take about three weeks. The defense asserts that neither Kelly nor the alleged victim appear in the tape. Although multiple witnesses identify the girl on the tape — including family members, friends and a basketball coach — neither the girl nor her parents testify.

    "That's another thing that the defense is arguing that, 'Look, this is all about money and extortion. The family never went to the police, and there was an aunt who was a police officer. They went to a lawyer for money,' " WBEZ's Natalie Moore recounts after closing arguments.

    The jury spends less than a day in deliberation before returning its verdict: not guilty. Kelly walks out of the Chicago courtroom a free man, sliding silently into his car as supporters cheer around him. (One of his later alleged victims, Jerhonda Pace, says she met the singer at that time, when she was in her mid-teens, having skipped school to support him at court.)

    Buku Abi's Instagram story denounces her father, R. Kelly, calling him a "monster." Instagram hide caption

    July 17, 2017

    BuzzFeed publishes stories of women in Kelly's alleged sex "cult"

    Written by Chicago reporter Jim DeRogatis — who has at this point been working on stories regarding R. Kelly-related allegations for the better part of two decades — the BuzzFeed investigation highlights the anguish of the parents of one young woman, "J." They allege that their daughter, age 19 when she met Kelly, has been drawn into a "cult" of women living with and totally controlled by the singer.

    DeRogatis includes corroborative details from three women who knew Kelly well: Cheryl Mack, who worked for about a year and a half as a personal assistant for the singer beginning in 2013, as well as Kitti Jones and Asante McGee, two of Kelly's ex-girlfriends who both lived with Kelly in the alleged "cult."

    These three women say that at the time the BuzzFeed article was published, six women lived with Kelly in Chicago and the suburbs of Atlanta and that Kelly "controls every aspect of their lives: dictating what they eat, how they dress, when they bathe, when they sleep, and how they engage in sexual encounters that he records." Jones also says that Kelly beat her. (Both Jones and McGee later appear in the Surviving R. Kelly docuseries and elaborate on their earlier allegations. Jones was 33 when she met Kelly McGee was 35.)

    July 23, 2018

    Kelly releases 19-minute song, "I Admit"

    Rochelle Washington (left) cries as Latresa Scaff details their sexual misconduct accusations against R. Kelly during a news conference in New York on Feb. 21. Seth Wenig/AP hide caption

    Rochelle Washington (left) cries as Latresa Scaff details their sexual misconduct accusations against R. Kelly during a news conference in New York on Feb. 21.

    Oct. 4, 2018

    Kelly's ex-wife accuses him of physical abuse

    Andrea Kelly, who met R. Kelly when she was 19, was married to him from 1996 to 2009. She appears on the daytime talk show The View to allege that he abused her physically on multiple occasions, including choking her. She filed for a restraining order in 2005 and alleges that he hit her when she asked for a divorce. She also says that she considered suicide.

    According to Andrea Kelly, she and the singer were already living apart by the time he stood trial in Chicago. She tells The View that her impetus to come forward publicly was hearing another woman make allegations on another show — explaining that the woman seemed to be speaking about her ex-husband without using his name, as the accusations seemed to mirror her own history with Kelly: "Some of the specific things she described in detail, I had been through, I mean, verbatim." (Andrea Kelly also appears in Surviving R. Kelly.)

    Jan. 3, 2019

    Lifetime begins airing Surviving R. Kelly docuseries

    Building on the reporting done by DeRogatis and others, producers of the Surviving R. Kelly docuseries speak to more than 50 people — including two of Kelly's siblings, his ex-wife, former employees and mentees, journalists, psychologists and several of his accusers — in a survey of allegations against Kelly dating back to the early 1990s. NPR TV critic Eric Deggans writes, "All of the women who say in the docuseries that they were abused by Kelly have previously made public allegations against the singer, but Surviving R. Kelly's power comes in hearing their stories told on camera, and all together."

    In early December, about a month before the series begins airing, a preview screening of the program and a panel discussion featuring several of Kelly's accusers in Manhattan is evacuated after multiple anonymous threats are called in to the venue.

    Chance the Rapper appears in the series' final episode and apologizes for having worked with R. Kelly on multiple occasions in recent years, despite the common knowledge of the accusations against the singer. After the series begins airing, Chance elaborates on Twitter: "The truth is any of us who ever ignored the R Kelly stories, or ever believed he was being setup/attacked by the system (as black men often are) were doing so at the detriment of black women and girls. I apologize to all of his survivors for working with him and for taking this long to speak out."

    January 2019

    Popular pressure on R. Kelly escalates

    Public pressure continues to mount against Kelly, though he has kept an ardently loyal fan base in some quarters. Though his music is still played on radio stations and appears on streaming services, the artist himself is increasingly under fire for his past conduct.

    On Jan. 9, activists gather outside Kelly's Chicago studio to protest and urge prosecutors to investigate the singer in the wake of Surviving R. Kelly.

    Also this week, the Chicago Sun-Times reports that at least two women have contacted Foxx's office with complaints regarding Kelly since she made her appeal. Pop star Lady Gaga publicly apologizes via Twitter for having made a 2013 duet with R. Kelly called "Do What U Want" (the chorus goes, "Do what you want with my body").

    "I stand behind these women [in the docuseries] 1000% percent," she writes, adding: "I think it's clear how explicitly twisted my thinking was at the time."

    On Jan. 10, Kelly's estranged daughter, Buku Abi (whose birth name is Joann Kelly), posts a lengthy note to her Instagram stories responding to the docuseries — a note in which she calls her father a "monster."

    "Going through all I have gone through in my life, I would never want anyone to feel the pain I have felt," she writes. "The same monster you all [are] confronting me about is my father. I am well aware of who and what he is."

    On Jan. 16, protesters gather in New York City at the offices of RCA Records and Sony Music Entertainment (RCA's corporate owner) to deliver what they say are over 217,000 signatures on a petition asking the label to drop Kelly. RCA does not respond to NPR's request for comment.

    Yet the very same week, on Jan. 18, Billboard reports that RCA has agreed to cut ties with Kelly. The embattled superstar had maintained his recording contracts throughout the previous controversies, including the child pornography trial. Now, though, RCA decides to distance itself from him.

    "This is a huge victory for the survivors who came forward, both in Surviving R. Kelly and before, and all young Black women, who are systematically undervalued in our society," Arisha Hatch of Color for Change, one of the groups part of the #MuteRKelly campaign, says in a statement. "This victory belongs to the survivors of his abuse — their brave testimonies played a critical role in pushing RCA to drop R. Kelly."

    January — February 2019

    More accusers come forward

    “Stop it. You all quit playing! Quit playing! I didn't do this stuff! This is not me! I'm fighting for my f***ing life! Y'all killing me with this sh*t!" @RKelly told @GayleKing, standing up. "I gave you 30 years of my f***ing career!"https://t.co/u4AENVJQsc pic.twitter.com/jLF7l8etYh

    &mdash CBS This Morning (@CBSThisMorning) March 6, 2019

    On Jan. 8, Kim Foxx, the state's attorney for Cook County, Ill., holds a press conference to ask possible victims of domestic violence or sexual assault by the singer to come forward so that her office can start an investigation. CBS 2 in Chicago reports that Foxx says of the series, "I was sickened by the allegations. I was sickened as a survivor. I was sickened as a mother. I'm sickened as a prosecutor." (Additionally, there are unconfirmed reports that Fulton County, Georgia, is opening its own investigation.)

    On Jan. 14, alleged victim Faith Rodgers appears at a press conference in New York City, saying that Kelly threatened to retaliate against her after she filed a civil suit against him in the New York Supreme Court. Those threatened retaliations, according to Rodgers, included him sharing private photos of her and saying that he would bring forward 10 male witnesses to testify "about her sex life."

    Attorney Lydia Hills, who represents Rodgers, says at the press conference that attached to a notarized and signed letter Kelly sent to her in response to the suit were several photos of Rodgers and text that "indicated that if Ms. Rodgers proceeded with the lawsuit, these photos would be made public."

    Rodgers is also represented by attorney Gloria Allred, who, in turn, works for two other women who allege that they were victims of Kelly — one of whom was underage at the time of the alleged abuse. Allred adds that on Jan. 14, Rodgers will be speaking with the New York Police Department, which, the lawyer says, is conducting an investigation into the singer.

    On Jan. 18, NBC News announces that it will be airing an interview that evening with one of Kelly's accusers, a woman named Tracy Sampson, who says that Kelly began abusing her in 1999, when she was 16 years old and an intern at Epic Records, a label that, like RCA, is a subsidiary of Sony.

    Sampson has come forward previously with her allegations in a May 2018 interview with the Washington Post, she said that she filed a lawsuit against Kelly in 2002 and that it was settled for $250,000. According to the Post, Sampson tried to cultivate a career afterward in artist management, but, the newspaper wrote, she "gave up because she was told her dispute with Kelly had poisoned her reputation."

    Speaking to NBC, an attorney for Kelly, Steven Greenberg, denies any wrongdoing with Sampson or any other women.

    "When I was 17, my parents were actually making me, trying to get me to take photos with him, take sexual videos with him, all kinds of stuff" -- Clary

    Wait, wait, wait. Your parents encouraged you to do sexual videos with R. Kelly? -- @GayleKing

    On Feb. 21, two more women — both also represented by Allred — come forward with claims that Kelly made sexual advances on them when they were underage, back in the mid-1990s. One of the women, Latresa Scaff, says Kelly had sex when she was 16 and intoxicated on alcohol and marijuana.

    "I did not have the capacity to consent," Scaff says.

    Kelly's attorney dismissed the allegations on Twitter the next day.

    Feb. 22, 2019

    Kelly is charged with 10 counts of sexual abuse (full story)

    In Illinois, the Cook County state's attorney, Kimberly Foxx, announces a 10-count indictment against Kelly on charges of aggravated criminal sexual abuse. The charges involve four victims, in alleged incidents that span from 1998 to 2010. Three of the four victims in the indictment were under the age of 17 at the time of the alleged incidents.

    Kelly is arrested that evening the following day, a judge sets his bond at $1 million — $250,000 per alleged victim. The judge also takes away his passport and orders that he not have contact with any of the alleged victims or anyone under the age of 18.

    Feb. 25, 2019

    Kelly pleads not guilty and is released on bail (full story)

    The singer's attorney, Steve Greenberg, enters a not guilty plea on all 10 charges.

    Initially unable to post $100,000 (or 10 percent of the bond) as bail, R. Kelly is jailed for three nights. After he is freed on this day, a Monday, he stops off at a McDonald's in Chicago — the same at which he would allegedly cruise for young girls in decades past.

    March 6, 2019

    Kelly is arrested again — this time for failure to pay child support CBS airs interview with the singer (full story)

    Just over a week after the singer was released on bail, he finds himself in court again, though for a different reason. After a hearing in Chicago, he is taken back into custody for failing to pay over $160,000 he owes to his ex-wife and their three children.

    The Cook County Sheriff's Department announces that he will remain in jail until the debt is paid. He is expected back in court on child-support related matters on March 13.

    The arrest comes just hours after CBS' This Morning airs clips of his first interview since the 10-count indictment was announced. In the interview, Kelly tells co-host Gayle King that he is innocent, and that his accusers are making up their claims for their own gain.

    "I'm very tired of all of the lies," he says. "I've been hearing things, and you know, and seeing things on the blogs, and you know — you know, I'm just tired."

    Kelly denies the crimes attributed to him and pushes back against the allegations laid out in Surviving R. Kelly: "They was describing Lucifer. I'm not Lucifer. I'm a man. I make mistakes, but I'm not a devil, and by no means am I a monster."

    R. Kelly, flanked by his legal team, arrives for his arraignment at the Leighton Criminal Courthouse in Chicago. Nuccio DiNuzzo/Getty Images hide caption

    R. Kelly, flanked by his legal team, arrives for his arraignment at the Leighton Criminal Courthouse in Chicago.

    Nuccio DiNuzzo/Getty Images

    He accuses his own accusers of seeking to profit from the allegations. And at times during the emotional conversation, Kelly breaks into tears, even standing and shouting his vehement defense at the camera until the show paused filming.

    "Thirty years of my career! And y'all trying to kill me? You're killing me, man!" he says, slamming his fist in his palm before people on set calm him down. "This is not about music! I'm trying to have a relationship with my kids! And I can't do it! Y'all just don't want to believe the truth! You don't want to believe it!"

    The families of a couple of R. Kelly's alleged victims issue responses quickly after the interview airs. This includes Alice and Angelo Clary, who say their 21-year-old daughter, Azriel, has been effectively brainwashed and controlled by Kelly.

    "All of the victims and parents cannot be lying," they say in a statement tweeted by attorney Michael Avenatti, noting that they "have never received a penny from R. Kelly."

    The Savages, too, deny that they've received any money related to their 23-year-old daughter Joycelyn's current relationship with the singer.

    "We care about your well-being. We went from seeing you or talking to you daily or weekly to not seeing you in two years," JonJelyn Savage says at a news conference the same day, addressing her distant daughter directly. "So that is a clear indication to us — and as a mother — there's something definitely wrong with this situation. And we won't stop until we have our answers and make sure your well-being is OK, and that you're safe and sound."

    On Thursday, CBS This Morning airs more of the King interview. In this footage, Kelly denies that he has ever paid out any settlements to any women, despite court documents indicating that he has paid money to three women who say they had sex with him as minors.

    He also again denies abuse allegations made by his ex-wife, Andrea Kelly, and screams and weeps when King asked him about the outstanding child-support payments. He shouts: "How can I pay child support — how — if my ex-wife is destroying my name and I can't work? . What kind of woman would tear down a dad who's trying to have a relationship with their kids?" He admits to King, however, that he has "zero" contact with their three children.

    He also asserts to King, "So many people have been stealing my money," but also tells King that he had not stepped foot in a bank by himself until about three to four weeks ago, and that he does not understand where his money or royalties have gone.

    The Thursday broadcast also includes further footage interviews with Joycelyn Savage and Azriel Clary, who are both currently living with Kelly. The women say that they have not been brainwashed, that they are happy and that they are both in love with him.

    An angry Clary makes her own stunning claim against her parents, saying that they encouraged her to make sexual videos with Kelly when she was just 17, in order to blackmail the singer at some future point, and says that her parents had specifically asked for $30,000 from Kelly.

    Savage adds: "Our parents are basically just out here trying to get money and scam."

    March 9-28, 2019

    Kelly is freed from jail again Gloria Allred alleges existence of another tape

    On March 9, Kelly is released from prison in Illinois. The AP and other media outlets report that an anonymous person has paid the Cook County Sheriff's Office the full amount of the back child care support the singer owes, totaling more than $160,000. "I promise you, we're going to straighten all this stuff out," Kelly says to a group of journalists.

    On March 10, attorney Gloria Allred holds a press conference in New York with a client, a Pennsylvania man named Gary Dennis. Dennis says that in cleaning out an old VHS collection, he stumbled across a tape marked "R. Kelly" that appears to show the singer sexually abusing underage girls. Allred claims that the tape shows a separate incident than the one that Illinois prosecutors are currently using as evidence in their 10 counts of aggravated criminal sexual abuse against Kelly, and that the tape has been turned over to federal law enforcement.

    Another woman named in the Illinois indictment comes forward publicly

    On March 28, Lanita Carter, one of the four women named (as "L.C.") in the February indictment filed by the Cook County state attorney, gives an interview to CBS This Morning. She says that on Feb. 18, 2003, when she was 24 years old, she arrived at Kelly's home to braid his hair, a job she had been doing for him for more than a year. She claims that he then grabbed her hair and tried to force her into performing oral sex when she refused and shielded her face, he began spitting on her repeatedly. She says she called the police the same day, and that they took her shirt, reportedly with Kelly's semen on it, as evidence. At the time, charges were not filed against Kelly.

    Carter says that she later agreed to a $650,000 settlement from Kelly he denied any wrongful conduct, and she agreed to keep quiet about the alleged incident. But Kelly went on to make a song, 2009's "Hair Braider" — released by his then-label, RCA Records — which seemed to reference specifics from the incident and about Carter. She says she received an additional settlement from Kelly for $100,000 for her silence Kelly again denied any wrongful conduct, but agreed to never perform the song again, or to include it in future recordings.

    Carter says that after R. Kelly gave his now-infamous interview to CBS This Morning anchor Gayle King — in which he denied ever paying out any settlements to any women — she decided to come forward, despite the terms of her past agreements with the singer. "I don't want to be in the public," she tells CBS journalist Jericka Duncan, weeping, "but this is my life. If I die tomorrow, I know that I told the truth." Kelly's lawyer, Steve Greenberg, tells CBS that police and prosecutors did not bring any charges against Kelly at the time of the alleged incident with Carter.

    Carter is represented by lawyer Michael Avenatti, who was recently arrested and charged by federal prosecutors about an alleged scheme to extort $20 million from Nike.

    May 30, 2019

    Illinois prosecutors announce a second indictment against Kelly

    Prosecutors in Cook County, Ill. announce a second indictment against Kelly, on 11 sexual assault and abuse charges. The alleged victim referred to in this indictment was a minor identified as "J.P." — the same initials of one of the alleged victims, also a minor, who was named in the February indictment. The time span in the May indictment is January 2010 the three previous charges related to "J.P." span from May 2009 Jan. 31, 2010. It is not immediately clear, however, if the new charges involve the same alleged incident.

    The charges include four counts of aggravated criminal sexual assault, two counts of criminal sexual assault by force, two counts of aggravated criminal sexual abuse and three counts of aggravated criminal sexual abuse. If convicted of the aggravated criminal sexual assault charges, Kelly faces six to 30 years of a mandatory sentence on each of those four charges.

    June 6, 2019

    Kelly pleads not guilty to new charges (full story)

    Kelly is arraigned on the charges listed in the second Cook County indictment against him. He pleads not guilty to all 11 counts of sexual assault and abuse at a Chicago courthouse.

    As member station WBEZ notes, Judge Lawrence Flood clarifies that the charges pertain to alleged victim "J.P.," who is mentioned in the February indictment against Kelly. These J.P. charges supersede several counts in the previous indictment.

    Four of the counts Kelly now faces are felonies carrying up to 30 years in prison each.

    "I can't speculate why prosecutors do something," Steve Greenberg, Kelly's attorney, tells reporters after the hearing. "It's the same facts that we know, the same witnesses and we expect that it's going to be the same result."

    July 12, 2019

    Federal prosecutors unseal new indictments against Kelly (full story)

    In a one-two punch, two sets of federal prosecutors hand down a total of 18 indictments against Kelly between the night of July 11 and the morning of July 12, in Chicago and Brooklyn respectively. It is the first time that Kelly has faced federal charges — which include allegations of child pornography, kidnapping, obstruction of justice and trafficking minors and women for sexual purposes.

    Kelly was arrested outside his home in Chicago on the evening of July 11. The following morning, his lawyer, Steve Greenberg, releases a statement that again professes Kelly's innocence and calls the new charges an "unprecedented assault by others for their own personal gain."

    July 16, 2019

    Kelly pleads not guilty in the Illinois federal charges judge orders him held without bond (full story)

    At his arraignment in a Chicago courtroom, Kelly pleads not guilty to all 13 counts included in the federal charges unsealed in the Northern District of Illinois. At the same hearing, Judge Harry Leinenweber denies bond for Kelly, ordering that the singer remain in custody.

    The hearing does not address the five-count indictment unsealed in Brooklyn, however. His arraignment on those charges is still to come, but one thing is now sure: When he does appear in a Brooklyn courtroom, it will be in the custody of federal law enforcement.

    Aug. 2, 2019

    Kelly pleads not guilty in the New York federal charges judge denies bail (full story)

    At his second arraignment on federal charges — this time, involving the five counts levied in July by prosecutors in the Eastern District of New York — Kelly again pleads not guilty.

    Judge Steven L. Tiscione decrees that given Kelly's history, he poses a significant flight risk as well as danger to the community. He denies the singer bail, calling the charges "incredibly serious." In any case, since Kelly remains in federal custody after the Illinois arraignment, Tiscione adds: "He's not going anywhere."

    Aug. 5, 2019

    Prosecutors file two criminal charges against Kelly in Hennepin County, Minn. (full story)

    On the first weekday after his arraignment in Brooklyn, Kelly is charged with two criminal counts related to prostitution with a girl above the age of 16, but below the age of 18. The alleged incident took place in Minneapolis in July 2001, and involves a fan whom prosecutors say Kelly lured to his hotel, and then paid $200 to dance naked for him.

    The county attorney, Mike Freeman, says that he's not piling on, and that the county has enough evidence to prosecute Kelly despite the incident having allegedly taken place nearly 20 years ago. "Frankly, Minnesota victims deserve their day in court," he says. "It doesn't disturb me whatsoever that it may not go to trial, as long as he spends time for the crimes he's committed elsewhere — but I can't be sure of that unless I'm at the table. And by charging this case, we are at the table."

    Nov. 25, 2019

    Girlfriend Joycelyn Savage says she is also a Kelly victim, alleging sexual and physical abuse as well as two forced abortions (full story)

    In a series of posts made on the crowdfunding platform Patreon, Savage — who has previously been one of the singer's foremost defenders — now says that she too has been victimized by Kelly. She alleges that since 2015, the singer choked her to the point of blacking out, sexually abused her, isolated her from friends and family and forced her into having two abortions.

    Correction Feb. 21, 2019

    An earlier version of this story said R. Kelly was about to turn 33 when the Chicago Sun-Times published its Dec. 21, 2000, article about him. Kelly was actually about to turn 34 at the time.

    Previously posted on Jan. 22: A caption on an earlier version of this story said Kitti Jones first spoke about allegations against R. Kelly in an October 2018 Rolling Stone story. She had been interviewed on the allegations for a July 2017 BuzzFeed article. And the interview with Rolling Stone appeared in October 2017.

    Volvo Trucks in 1970s

    The 1970s was a decade of refinement in the truck industry. More European manufacturers were beginning to fit their trucks with tilt-cabs (a move pioneered by Volvo in 1962) and turbocharged engines (Volvo had been the first back in 1954). The horsepower rating of engines also grew, resulting in increased average speeds. The decade also saw the emergence of a new breathtaking series of trucks that would set the trend of truck design for years to come: the Volvo F10/F12 (and the Globetrotter version). Now hold your breath and dig deeper into the different Volvo trucks of the '70s.

    Volvo has been a major producer of cross-country vehicles since 1939/40 (more than 10 years earlier, in 1928, Volvo delivered the first standard vehicle for military use: trucks of the very first type that Volvo produced from 1928 onwards).

    A purpose-built special vehicle
    Normally, cross-country vehicles have been civilian truck types which have been converted to all-wheel-drive. On several occasions, however, purpose-built special vehicles in the light class have been developed. The ultimate example of this was the C3 generation of vehicles, perhaps the most efficient light-duty cross-country vehicle ever developed and series-produced.

    The C3 was both a civilian and military vehicle, which was (apart from military use) used in areas like power production, fire fighting and road construction.

    Driving Paris-Dakar
    Great fame was won by the C3 vehicle when it participated in the Paris-Dakar rally, the toughest and most severe vehicle rally in the world. In January 1983, two 3.5-tonne C303 vehicles participated in the Paris-Dakar. One of them, driven by Hasse Henriksson, Ingemar Östeberg and John Granäng, won the light truck category after about 10,000 kilometres of cross-country and desert driving under severe conditions, for the most part in terrain without regular roads.

    This event, which took place near the very end of the production period of the C3 vehicle generation, demonstrated the qualities of this latest generation of Volvo light-duty cross country mobility vehicles. The C3 generation of vehicles included a large number of versions for various purposes. With a GVW of between 3.5 and 5.5 tonnes, with two or three axles (all driven), versions were available for every military and civilian use.

    Simple and advanced at the same time
    The total number of C3 vehicles produced was limited, due particularly to the comparatively high price for this sophisticated vehicle. The technical specification was both simple and advanced, with a powerful straight-in-line six cylinder engine and special front- and rear axles where the wheels were situated lower than the centre of the axles, something which contributed to a very high-placed bottom floor of the vehicle, a major explanation behind the good off-road driving capability.

    In duty with the Swedish defence force
    Normally, the C3 light-duty truck was used for conveyance of personnel or goods, but the military applications also included other tasks like ambulance service, mobile base for intelligence staff and even as a base for anti-tank guns and robots. This was to some extent the same service as had been performed by the predecessor P2304/L3304/L3314/L3315, but new tasks were made possible by the capacity of this vehicle, which by far exceeded the figures of the predecessor a little more than a decade earlier.

    The major customer for the C3 was the Swedish defence forces, which had originally requested the design of it. It was also, however, sold to military forces in other countries, often in versions adapted to the special needs of the terrain in their respective countries.

    F4 and F6

    Despite the fact that Volvo was in the early 1960s a very successful international truck manufacturer, the number of medium-duty trucks produced annually by Volvo was far to small to enable the development of a first-class medium-duty truck alone. Since Volvo had the ambition to grow in this segment as well, the solution was to seek development partners among other relatively small European manufacturers in this segment.

    The Club of Four
    The result was the 'Club of Four' which was formed in the early 1970s and which had a design office in Paris, France. This 'club' was formed by Volvo, DAF, Klöckner-Humboldt-Deutz ('Magirus') and Saviem (a French make which later merged with Berliet to form 'Renault Vehicules Industriels'). All these four manufacturers shared the ambition to develop a modern ergonomic high-quality medium-duty distribution truck.

    The 'Club of Four' was a fairly successful joint project. Despite the fact that the trucks resulting from these various manufacturers looked very similar there were distinct differences between the Volvo trucks and the other trucks.

    Unique, in terms of safety and engine
    The 'Light-duty F' trucks (the most common nickname for the Volvo trucks of this family) was presented by Volvo in 1975, in a number of models for various transport tasks. It was clear that the Volvo 'Light-duty F' trucks were unique in some areas, particularly in terms of safety and the engine.

    In the mid 70s, not all truck manufacturers were concerned with safety. For that reason, three out of the four manufacturers were not interested in strengthening the cabs for their trucks in order to withstand the severe Swedish cab crash-safety tests. For Volvo, of course, it was necessary to reinforce all 'Light-duty F' trucks (not only those intended for the Swedish market, but for all markets).

    The different philosophy of Volvo
    The result was, of course, that the 'Light-duty F' trucks from Volvo were markedly more safe than the other three manufacturers´ trucks, even in markets where there was direct competition between all four makes and where the Swedish safety regulations were not mandatory.

    Also when it came to the engines, Volvo had a slightly different philosophy from the other truck manufacturers. Volvo, being a pioneer in the area of turbocharging, chose to offer turbocharged engines in all of the heavier 'Light-duty F' trucks (from 13 tonnes GVW), and in the early 1980s even the lightest types of this range received turbocharged engines, making Volvo the first truck manufacturer in the world to exclusively produce ONLY turbocharged trucks.

    Introducing the new F range
    When Volvo introduced this range in 1975, the heavier 'F6' model featured a direct-injection 6-litre Volvo engine, while the lightest version 'F4' featured a Perkins engine, which was replaced by the in-line-six TD40 engine (produced in Volvo's engine plant in Vara, Sweden) which thanks to its pre-combustion-chamber design and turbocharging featured clean emissions. The new 'F4' version of 1978 with the Volvo TD40 engine was easily identified by a diagonal bar in the grille, a design feature which has since become an integrated feature of all Volvo trucks.

    The F4 and F6 trucks became very popular and greatly expanded the Volvo market-share in the medium-duty segment. The F6 played a major role in establishing Volvo trucks in the USA (the USA soon became the major market for the F6 trucks).

    Working in an international environment
    The F4/F6 trucks were important in establishing Volvo as an international producer of trucks, since the design process took place in an international environment. As previously mentioned, the design of the basic cab took place in Paris. The design of the Volvo F4/F6 trucks themselves took place in the Volvo Oostakker facility near Ghent, Belgium.

    In Oostakker a completely new modern truck factory was erected for the production of the F4/F6 truck, a factory which later also started producing heavy-duty Volvo trucks. This factory is today the main European Volvo truck factory, and the second largest Volvo truck assembly plant in the world.

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