Wilderness SwStr - History

Wilderness SwStr - History

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(SwStr: t. 390; 1. 137'; b. 25'; dr. 6'; s. 13 k.; a. 4

B. N. Creary—sometimes spelled B. Crary—was a wooden-hulled, side wheel steamer built in 1864 at Brooklyn, N.Y. Acquired by the Union Navy at New York City on 30 May 1864 and simultaneously renamed Wilderness, she fitted out at the New York Navy Yard and was commissioned on 20 July 1864.

After arriving at Hampton Roads shortly thereafter, Wilderness was assigned immediately to the 2d Division of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. She operated between Hampton Roads and various points along the James River through the end of August. While she performed a variety of duties during that time, she operated primarily as a supply ship. She also served as a transport and dispatch vessel when the occasion demanded. On the average, she apparently made two trips upriver from Hampton Roads per week delivering fresh vegetables and provisions to the crews of naval vessels operating up the James River and to the crews of the lighthouses situated along that waterway.

Occasionally, however, nearby action enlivened her predominately pedestrian duties. On 15 July 1864, when Confederate guns located near Malvern Hill fired on Union ships, Wilderness made a night run down the James with casualties embarked, bound for the hospital at Norfolk. On the 27th of that month, Wilderness was compelled by the heavy movement of Union troops across two pontoon bridges spanning the James to remain between them. While thus immobile, the sidewheeler observed the gunboats Agawam and Mendota shelling Confederate positions across nearby Four Mile Creek.

On 25 August, Acting Rear Admiral S. P. Lee, commanding the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, reported to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles that "to promote the efficiency of the blockade of the bars" (off the North Carolina coast) he had directed Capt. Melancton Smith, the commander of naval forces on the James, "to have the Wilderness prepared at once for service on the blockade of Wilmington." By 1 September, when Admiral Lee reported the composition of his squadron, he listed Wilderness as a "supply steam: ordered to fit out as gunboat and join (the) blockade."

By late October, Wilderness had been armed with a battery of four 24-pounders, enabling her to be classed as a gunboat. On 28 October, Rear Admiral David D. Porter, the new commanding officer of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, issued orders to Acting Master Henry Arey, commanding the newly converted sidewheeler, to "proceed and report to the senior officer off Eastern Bar (Cape Fear River) for duty on the blockade as a chaser."

Wilderness went into action almost immediately. At 1905 on the evening of 31 October, while patrolling off New Inlet, N.C., she spotted a strange vessel bearing south by west, heading over the bar. Niphon, on station nearby, also saw the ship and came about. Wilderness, steaming at top speed and firing as she came ultimately overhauled the strange vessel and captured her at 1945.

The prize turned out to be the British blockade runner Annie and was described by Arey as ". a fine steamer, with two propellers, one smokestack and . schooner-rigged." Sailors from Wilderness boarded the ship, finding her cargo to consist of 540 bales of cotton, 30 tons of pressed tobacco, and 14 casks of "spirits of turpentine." Niphon took on board the passengers and crew of the runner while Wilderness took charge of the prize. During the transfer of prisoners, Confederate guns at nearby Fort Fisher opened fire on the Union vessels. One shell struck Wilderness, passing through her hurricane deck on the starboard side and going through a water tank at the port gangway, where it exploded, damaging the rim of the gunboat's port wheel.

Repaired at Beaufort, N.C., when the ship put into that port for coal, Wilderness resumed blockade duties off Wilmington soon thereafter. Shortly before the Union assault on Fort Fisher, the key Confederate stronghold guarding the approaches to the seaport of Wilmington, a daring plan to reduce some of the defenses by using an explosive-laden ship was put into motion. The sidewheel steamer Louisiana was stripped and filled with explosives; manned by a volunteer crew commanded by Comdr. A. C. Rhind; and towed into position, first by Sassacus and later by Wilderness off the fort. The latter took up the tow on 18 December, but heavy weather delayed the start of the entire operation. In the final attempt, made on 23 December, Wilderness—manned by Acting Master Arey four officers and "enough men to handle the vessel"—took Louisiana in close to the walls of Fort Fisher. Rhind and his men lit the fuses, kindled a fire aft, and then escaped in small boats to Wilderness.

The fuses set by Rhind failed to detonate the explosives, but the fire aft did. Louisiana blew up as planned, but other than to send out a heavy shock wave, had little effect. At dawn the next day, Christmas Eve the first assault on Fort Fisher began. However, as Admiral Porter subsequently wrote, "I was in hopes I should have been able to present to the nation Fort Fisher and surrounding works as a Christmas offering, but I am sorry to say it has not been taken yet." The expedition failed dismally, due to the temerity exhibited by the Army commander, General Benjamin F. Butler.

During the first attempt to reduce and invest the Confederate stronghold, on 24 and 25 December 1864, Wilderness lay in reserve offshore, in the first division. Through much of the action, Wilderness served as tender to the flagship Malvern and spotted her fall of shot. On the 25th, the side-wheeler took on board the bodies of the sailors who had been killed on Ticonderoga and Juniata and also received the wounded from those ships.

After transferring these casualties to Fort Jackson, Wilderness returned to Beaufort, where she took two coal schooners in tow and pulled them to Wilmington, getting underway on the 28th as Union forces were orenaring to make a second attempt to take Fort Fisher. Delivering her tows soon thereafter, the sidewheel steamer supported the landings against the Confederate stronghold on 13 January 1865, taking on board a draft of troops from the transport Atlantic. She took the troops to within 500 yards of shore and, while anchored there, transferred the men to boats for the final run to shore.

The following day, Wilderness delivered mail among the fleet and took on ammunition, Iater, she delivered cargo to New Ironsides.

Subsequently, Wilderness took part in the occupation of former Confederate works at Smithville, N.C., on 19 January, Acting Master Arey and a boat crew from the ship participating directly in the operation. Wilderness remained in the vicinity of the mouth of the Cape Fear River into February and then returned to her former operating area, the James River.

Admiral Porter ordered Wildernese up the Chickahominy River to try to communicate with General Philip Sheridan. Collaterally, the ship was to gain all the information she could learn about the river itself and Southern forces in the area before returning to Aiken's Landing with any dispatches which needed to be delivered. Subsequently, the side-wheeler received orders to proceed without delay to New Berne, N.C., to cooperate with Army forces of General Sherman in the movement up the Chowan River toward Winton, N.C. Arriving on 2 April with dispatches from Admiral Porter, Wilderness resumed her operations in the sounds of North Carolina, performing general utility duties for the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron through the end of the Civil War.

Decommissioned on 10 June 1965, Wilderness was acquired by the Treasury Department at the Boston Navy Yard on 6 September 1865 and sailed for Baltimore, Md., on the 17th. There, the side-wheeler was fitted out for her new duties as a revenue cutter and, following repairs and alterations, was ordered to Florida waters on 28 November.

Reaching Key West on 8 December, Wilderness operated out of that port for a year, before she shifted up the east coast to Charleston, S.C., on 14 December 1866 for repairs. Wilderness subsequently operated in the Gulf of Mexico, ranging from New Orleans to Veracruz, Mexico. She apparently operated out of New Orleans, in the gulf, through the summer of 1872.

Ordered to New York for repairs on 2 September 1872, Wilderness reached New York City on the 19th. Records indicate that the ship was to be dismantled. The orders, dated 3 January 1873, are recorded as "carried into effect, January 11." Now, whether or not this means that the name was retained and an entirely new ship was built is not entirely clear. In any event, she is listed as being ordered to New Orleans for duty on 3 July. Sailing on the 7th, she arrived at her new duty station on the 19th.

During the ship's period in a "limbo" of sorts, she was renamed John A. Dix on 11 June 1873. She apparently then operated in the Gulf of Mexico, out of New Orleans, through the autumn of 1879, when she was temporarily stationed at Mobile, Ala.

The cutter operated in the Florida Keys in the spring of 1880 and into the early 1880's. Ordered to New York City for replacement of her boilers in the autumn of 1883, she arrived there on 30 October. Ordered back to Florida waters upon completion of those repairs on 1 February 1884, she departed New York City on 13 March and arrived at Key West nine days later. Resuming operations in the Florida Keys, John A. Dix cruised the Gulf of Mexico between Florida and Texas, from the Mississippi to the Rio Grande, through the end of the 1880's. Ordered to New Orleans, LA., on 28 March 1891, John A. Dix arrived there on 7 April. Placed out of commission soon thereafter, the erstwhile side-wheel gunboat was sold on 18 May 1891 at Algiers, LA.

Battle of the Wilderness

The Battle of the Wilderness marked the first stage of a major Union offensive toward the Confederate capital of Richmond, ordered by the newly named Union General-in-Chief Ulysses S. Grant in the spring of 1864. As the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River on May 4, Confederate General Robert E. Lee determined that his Army of Northern Virginia would confront the enemy in the dense Virginia woods known as the Wilderness. Familiar terrain for the rebels, the heavy woods and dense undergrowth also negated the Union’s numerical advantage�,000 to 65,000𠄻y making it nearly impossible for a large army to make an orderly advance. Two days of bloody and often chaotic combat followed, ending in a tactical draw and heavy casualties, especially on the Union side. Grant refused to retreat, however, and instead ordered his battered troops to continued southward in what would be a long and costly𠄻ut ultimately successful�mpaign.


Laguna Coast Wilderness Park is ever-changing. Exposed rock and fossils tell a story of a land covered by water and occupied by sea creatures, a land riddled with faults, a land where magma once oozed from the ground and is now hardened and eroding.

Laguna Coast Wilderness Park also reveals a long human history. Archaeologists have discovered evidence of villages that are thousands of years old. In the last century or two at Laguna Coast, ranchers rounded up their cattle and farmers planted walnut groves. More recently, the community has worked to save this piece of nature, creating stories that captivate our imaginations and awaken our sense of connection with the land.

You can find Laguna Coast Wilderness Park’s earliest history written in stone. Some park rocks date back to the end of the age of dinosaurs -- 65 million years ago – with clay and sand deposited by streams, swamps, and ponds near the coast. In other park locations, fossil scallops tell of a time 40 million years later, when salt water covered the park and sea creatures thrived here on an ocean shelf.

Paleontologists discovered 10 million-year-old giant shark teeth as workers prepared the roadbeds through Laguna Coast Wilderness Park. Scientists also found embedded in the rock the vertebrae and jaws of ancient whales.

Millions of years later, but still thousands of years ago, people made their homes in Laguna Coast Wilderness Park. Grinding rocks, cog stones, projectile points, and stone ornaments are examples of artifacts discovered in the area. Radiocarbon research shows that human habitation of Laguna Canyon extended as far back as 2,000 years B.C.

Evidence indicates that the Acjachemen people inhabited the Laguna Canyon area. A village called Tom-ok’ was located in Laguna Canyon. Shortly after the arrival of the Spanish missionaries in the mid- to late-1700s, many local Indians were enslaved and forced to abandon their culture.

Laguna Coast Wilderness Park is located in the San Joaquin Hills, named after the Rancho San Joaquin. This rancho was formed from two large Mexican land grants made to Jose Andres Sepulveda in 1837 and 1842. Sepulveda was known for his hospitality, political involvement and love of fast horses.

When Rancho San Joaquin was granted to Sepulveda, the governor failed to acknowledge that Acjachemen villages already occupied the land. Even to this day, Acjachemen people continue their struggle for formal recognition as a tribe - and to receive compensation for the loss of their land.

The Great Drought of the 1860s decimated the cattle-based economies, and the situation paved the way for the next American landowner, James Irvine. In 1864 and 1866, James Irvine and partners purchased the bulk of what would become the Irvine Ranch for $25K, including Rancho San Joaquin. The family farmed and ranched the land for over a century before the Irvine Company’s current owner, Donald Bren, completed his purchase of the ranch in 1983.

The growth and development of the surrounding area spurred citizens and politicians to preserve some of the last remaining areas of wild Orange County. Laguna Beach bookstore owner James Dilley returned from a trip to Europe in the 1960s with the idea of creating a greenbelt around his city. The proposed “Laguna Greenbelt” would preserve not only habitat for flora and fauna, but also foster the sense of community that still exists in Laguna Beach and South Laguna.

In 1989, to show their desire to protect the land, artists and other citizens built “The Tell,” a 636-foot wall that followed the ridgelines of what is now the Dilley Preserve. The citizens of Laguna Beach staged an 8,000-person rally to save the canyons. The Irvine Company, appreciating the passion of the community, agreed to sell several parcels and donate others in order to create present-day Laguna Coast Wilderness Park.

Dedicated Laguna Beach citizens created the Laguna Canyon Foundation to help with the preservation project. The citizenry of Laguna Beach voted to tax themselves to create the park – and Laguna Canyon Foundation raised additional funds and partnered with the State of California and the County of Orange to purchase the land. These joint efforts led the County of Orange to form Laguna Coast Wilderness Park which opened on April 10, 1993 and is managed by Orange County Parks.

As a result of the community’s work, tens of thousands of visitors enjoy the park yearly. They hike, bike, or horseback ride more than 40 miles of trails. During their travels in Laguna Coast Wilderness Park, visitors celebrate the chance to view a mule deer, bobcat, or red-tailed hawk.

The Nix Nature Center, a cooperative effort of OC Parks and the Laguna Canyon Foundation, opened in 2007 and was made possible through a generous donation from Laguna Woods residents James and Rosemary Nix. The Nix Nature Center serves to remind visitors of the park’s special value. The exhibits explore the many meanings of Laguna Coast in the minds and hearts of those who use the park for recreation, artistic inspiration, scientific study, and cultural renewal.

You can become a part of Laguna Coast Wilderness Park history by visiting for a hike - or attending a guided walk - or assisting with stewardship projects. We look forward to sharing this magical place with you!

Wilderness SwStr - History

The school opened in their home on Mann Terrace, North Adelaide, with three girls and a boy as pupils. In 1885 the School moved to a site on Northcote Terrace, north of its present site, and in 1893, having outgrown that building, moved again to its present location at 30 Northcote Terrace, Medindie.

By 1895 there were sixty-two students on the roll, and eighty-three by 1900. It is thought that the first boarder arrived in 1893 and by 1906 there were as many boarders as could be accommodated.

As the School grew, the younger Brown sisters became involved. Miss Margaret was Headmistress, Miss Wynnie was in charge of the Kindergarten, Miss Annie took on the role of housekeeper and the care of the boarders, and Miss Mamie, the first pupil, joined the teaching staff in 1898. The School thus became known as ‘The Misses Brown's School', although its correct name was ‘The Medindie School and Kindergarten.’ In 1918 the name became ‘The Wilderness’, partly because of the wilderness-like nature of the grounds and partly because of the biblical connotation of challenge and renewal in the wilderness.

The School and its spirit grew despite the World Wars. It introduced the brown uniform and established the Semper Verus (Always True) motto. By the late thirties Wilderness was flourishing, having survived the effects of the Depression and taken on many new girls from other private schools which closed as a result of those difficult years.

In 1946, the Old Scholars’ Association hosted a belated Diamond Jubilee to celebrate the achievements of the Brown sisters, and the first history book of the School—The Wilderness Book.

Three years later, Miss Margaret was awarded the OBE for her services to education in South Australia. Soon after, the School’s ownership was transferred to a Company and Council of Governors to ensure its future prosperity.

The School has continued to thrive under the guiding hand of the Council of Governors. Although the running of a school today bears little resemblance to the administration of a small private school at the turn of the last century, the Brown traditions have been kept alive in a happy and caring family atmosphere, combined with academic excellence of which they would have been proud.

Margaret Brown always believed in higher education and self-reliance for girls, aiming to equip them for full participation in public life, as well as for the role of wife and mother. She strove to provide a sound academic education, although the expectations of her clientele also required training in feminine accomplishments and behaviour.

Today, the legacy of the Misses Brown lives on through the progressive education we deliver and through the young Wilderness women who lead lives of compassion and social justice.

The Old Testament - A Brief Overview

From Sinai, God led the Israelites through "the great and terrible wilderness" to Kadesh (the border of the promised land). Moses sent 12 spies, one from each of the 12 tribes of Israel, into Canaan to explore the land. The spies returned with glowing reports of the fruitfulness of the land. They brought back samples of its figs and pomegranates and a cluster of grapes so large that it had to be carried between two men on a pole (Num. 13:1-25)

The majority of the spies, however, voted against the invasion of the land because of the huge inhabitants of Canaan, and fortified cities "walled to heaven". It was a report of doom. Yet two of the spies, Joshua and Caleb, brought back a report full of faith and encouragement.

Num 13:30-33 But the men who had gone up with him said, "We are not able to go up against the people, for they are stronger than we." And they gave the children of Israel a bad report of the land which they had spied out, saying, "The land through which we have gone as spies is a land that devours its inhabitants, and all the people whom we saw in it are men of great stature. "There we saw the giants (the descendants of Anak came from the giants) and we were like grasshoppers in our own sight, and so we were in their sight." . . . Then Caleb quieted the people before Moses, and said, "Let us go up at once and take possession, for we are well able to overcome it."

But the people lost heart and rebelled, refusing to enter Canaan and crying for a new leader who would take them back to Egypt. To punish them for their lack of faith, God condemned all of that generation, except Caleb and Joshua, to perish in the wilderness for 40 years (Num. 14:26-38). All those 20 years old and up would indeed perish in the wilderness with the exception of Joshua and Caleb.

During these years of wandering in the wilderness, Moses' patience was continually tested by the murmurings, grumblings, and complaints of the people. At one point, Moses' patience reached its breaking point and he sinned against the Lord, in anger against the people. When the people again grumbled against Moses, saying they had no water, the Lord told Moses to speak to the rock and water would flow forth. Instead, Moses lifted his hand and struck the rock twice with his rod. Apparently because he disobeyed the Lord in this act, Moses was not permitted to enter the Promised Land (Num. 20:1-13). That privilege would belong to his successor, Joshua.

After 40 years the sandglass ran out and Moses brought the tribes back to Kadesh. They camped on the plains of Moab where Moses spoke to them for the last time. Moses then turned his leadership over to Joshua. God led him to the top of Mount Nebo to see the land and there Moses died.

Wilderness SwStr - History

Property Established in 1970


The property was established in 1970 and has since remained in the Olson family. The former Wilderness Bar closed in 1978. The property has sat idle until 2014. Rick and Darron Olson are brothers, and are the sons of the late Donald and Barbara Olson, owners of the former Wilderness Bar, which is now the site of Wilderness Resort.

Uno and Sue Warjacka, the original property and bar owners, had named the complex, Wilderness Resort and Bar. At that time they offered cabins, a bar, a store, and a sauna.

Rick and Darron have always had the dream of opening up a motel or cabins on the family property, and possibly a small campground. Now their dream has come true.

The Wilderness Resort started out in the beginning by purchasing a cabin and a home located next to the family property. They completed a full remodel of both and are now their first rentals for the Resort.


Owners of Wilderness Resort include, Rick Olson and his wife Michele Olson, and Darron Olson and his wife Jamie Olson.

We look forward to your stay.

Join us soon for a
wonderful stay in a relaxed
wilderness setting


11778 Superior Street *Check in here!
Lac La Belle, MI 49950

6309 Fifth Street
Lac La Belle, MI 49950


A new era addressing climate change

As we welcome a new administration, we will work on undoing the damage by the Trump Administration and move forward as we focus our work on addressing the climate crisis.


A group of visionaries--Aldo Leopold, Robert Marshall, Robert Sterling Yard, Benton MacKaye, Ernest Oberholtzer, Harvey Broome, Bernard Frank and Harold C. Anderson--form The Wilderness Society to save some of America’s dwindling wildlands. At the time, forests and other public lands are mainly seen as resources for logging, mining and other development. Setting out to conserve the wildest places is a revolutionary idea. In the years that follow, The Wilderness Society will work with communities to protect wild lands from development and build a unified national conservation framework.


Wilderness Society President Olaus Murie, activist Mardy Murie and others, including Alaska Conservation Society co-founder Celia Hunter, begin working to permanently protect the northeastern corner of Alaska., which is already being called “the last great wilderness.” Seven years later, President Dwight D. Eisenhower will later follow their lead by protecting the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.


The Wilderness Act is signed into law, creating a way to protect the most natural and least-developed wildlands for future generations. The act immediately puts 9.1 million acres of land into the National Wilderness Preservation System and sets the framework for decades of wilderness conservation hence. The bill was written and championed by The Wilderness Society’s own Howard Zahniser Alice Zahniser, his widow, and Mardy Murie, the widow of former Wilderness Society President Olaus J. Murie, were the White House’s guests at the bill-signing.

The lessons of nature

DJ Lee

As Lee became familiar with the wilderness she visited, she was rewarded with breath-taking moments: the sight of Chinook salmon returning from the ocean to spawn in the place on the upper Selway where they were born a silent communion with a reclusive pine marten at George’s original homestead property. Her encounter with the marten unexpectedly brought her closer to her grandfather, who died when she was an infant.

“I think it’s because I learned that martens were persecuted animals, hunted almost to extinction at the same time I realized that George sympathized with persecuted people and may have felt maltreated himself…,” Lee wrote.

“I saw how, just as every time I came to the wilderness, the trees and rivers and creeks and animals put you in your place…George’s tangled identity—his love of image and narrative, his willingness to rush into fire for a friend, and his effort to defend the persecuted and take care of those who, like me, my mother, my grandmother, struggled with disordered mind states, moods that betrayed us or gave us power—was growing on me. I felt a separation, a self moving into George’s experience, then back into my own skin, but changed.”

1. Etymology

The etymology, or history of a word, is sometimes offered as though the roots revealed the word’s correct, present meaning. This is a misunderstanding, as the meaning of a word changes over time and may end up far from its original use. However, an etymology may provide important clues into the biography of an idea and may have rhetorical significance when the meaning of a word is contested. Both of these are true of the etymology of wilderness. A rough summary of the roots of wilderness is a place essentially characterized by wild animals. The oldest and central root in this word is wild. It is present in Common Germanic, and is found in Old English as wilde, with surviving instances from c.725 as an adjective for plants and animals that were not tamed or domesticated and applied similarly to places by c.893. The Oxford English Dictionary gives its probable origin as the pre-Germanic ghweltijos, with a possible parallel in the root of the Latin and Greek words for wild beast.

An alternate and apparently mistaken origin of wild often given in the wilderness literature, repeated in Thoreau’s journals and given by Roderick Nash for instance, is that it is the past participle of will (Nash 2014). Wilderness is understood to be self-willed land, not subjected to the will of a domesticator or cultivator. The resonance of the idea is strong, but unfortunately the Old English willian, the root of will, has no clear connection to wilde. One upshot of rejecting this interpretation is that wild is first a word for plants and animals, later applied by analogy to people, and not vice versa as Nash reports.

The next piece in the etymology is the Common Germanic word for beast, found in Old English as deor. This was combined with wilde to form wilddeor, “wild animal,” with instances known from c.825. The “(d)er” which separates wilderness from wildness, is the root of our modern word for deer. In Old English, this was combined with the suffix –en, to make the adjective wilddeoren, which became wildern in Middle English, and was used to describe places. The –en suffix generally denotes what something is made of, as in “wooden” and “earthen,” so a wildern place is one made of wilddeor, of wild beasts. To this is joined the suffix –ness in an unusually concrete sense to form wilderness..

The centrality of wild animals in the etymology is important. Wilderness points not only to the absence of human culture in the landscape but to the presence of that which is often incompatible with it. When the wolves and the bears flourish, the domestic livestock are in danger, and people fear to walk at night. And wild beasts are easily displaced by human activity and presence. Aldo Leopold calls the crane “wildness incarnate” because of its love of solitude (1949). Nash draws out this connection to animals when he interprets the etymology as “the place of wild beasts” (1970). “If wildlife is removed,” he writes, “although everything else remains visibly the same, the intensity of the sense of wilderness is diminished” (Nash 1970). He cites Thoreau’s delight in the New England Lynx, Theodore Roosevelt’s equating wilderness with big game ranges and Leopold’s discussion of the last Grizzly on Escudilla. Leopold often treats particular species as defining the character of the places they dwell.

Key accomplishments of new Interior Secretary Deb Haaland:

Was an original cosponsor of a bill directing the Department of the Interior and U.S. Forest Service to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions from public lands and waters, recognizing the key role of fossil fuels extracted on public lands in driving climate change.

Introduced a House resolution to adopt a goal of protecting 30 percent of U.S. lands and waters by the year 2030, a widely touted target based on scientists’ recommendations for responding and adapting to climate change and curbing the extinction crisis.

Introduced legislation that would set the stage for reviewing and potentially changing offensive and racist names of parks, national forests, wilderness areas, monuments, mountains, rivers and other places.

Was an original cosponsor of a bill to restore and expand protection of Bears Ears National Monument, which was unlawfully reduced by President Trump. The measure would protect the full area originally proposed by the Bears Ears Inter-Tribal Coalition, an alliance of five sovereign tribal nations: the Navajo Nation, Hopi Tribe, Ute Indian Tribe, Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, and Pueblo of Zuni.

Introduced legislation to protect Chaco Canyon from harmful oil and gas drilling around the park. Chaco Canyon was a major center of Ancestral Puebloan culture and the area includes important archaeological sites and structures that are among the most significant intact examples of pre-Columbian culture.

Cosponsored a bill to permanently fund the Land and Water Conservation Fund, which is considered a crucial tool for guaranteeing access to public lands and helping ecosystems and communities mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change.

Cosponsored legislation to improve the permitting system for outfitters, guides and others who lead activities on national parks and other public lands.

Spearheaded a bill to establish Cerro de la Olla Wilderness within the Río Grande del Norte National Monument in northern New Mexico. The measure aimed to preserve traditional uses and access for the people of the Taos area, who have been hunting and gathering herbs in the area for hundreds of years.

Cosponsored the America’s Public Land Act, a move to prohibit the Department of the Interior and Department of Agriculture from selling public lands or giving management authority to state officials. The bill was a response to fringe anti-conservation beliefs that ended up heavily informing the policy views of the Trump administration.


  1. Tanner

    Can you fill the gap?

  2. Scilti

    What words ... science fiction

  3. Bradon

    Sleep on it.

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