Tingey II DD- 272 - History

Tingey II DD- 272 - History


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Tingey II

(Destroyer No. 272: dp. 1,215 (n.) l. 314'436"; b 30'11"; dr. 9'9Y4" (aft); s. 3i.53 k. (tl.); cpl122; a. 4 4", 1 3", 12 21" tt., 2 act.; cl. Clemson)

The second Tingey (Destroyer No. 272) was laid down on 8 August 1918 at Quincy, Mass., by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., launched on 24 April 1919; sponsored by Miss Mary Velora Arringdale; and commissioned at the Boston Navy Yard on 26 July 1919, Comdr. Alfred W. Brown in command.

After fitting out, the destroyer proceeded to the west coast and joined Division 31, Squadron 2, Flotilla 10, at San Diego late in December. For the next two and one-half years, the destroyer operated out of San Diego with the Pacific Fleet. During most of that period, however, she had only 50 percent of her normal complement. Consequently, though she did conduct operations and patrols along the western coast of Mexico, she remained in a quasi reserve status throughout her brief period of commissioned service. She made but one organizational change during her active career and that came in the latter part of 1921 when she was reassigned to Division 29, Squadron 10.

In 1922, the antimilitarist feeling prevalent following World War I combined with the government's policy of financial retrenchment to cause the deactivation of a substantial portion of the Navy's recently expanded destroyer fleet. Tingey, therefore, was placed out of commission on 24 May 1922, berthed at San Diego, and remained there for the remainder of her career. After 14 years of inactivity, Tingey's name WAS struck from the Navy list on 19 May 1936. She was sold to the Schisvone-Bonomo Corp., of New York City, on 29 September 1936 and was scrapped in December.


The CIA and Signals Intelligence

National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 506

Compiled and edited by Jeffrey T. Richelson

For more information contact:
202/994-7000, [email protected]


The Wizards Of Langley: Inside The Cia's Directorate Of Science And Technology
By Jeffrey T Richelson, Basic Books Reprint edition (December 5, 2002)

Related Links

Washington, DC, March 20, 2015 &ndash For decades the Central Intelligence Agency has conducted a major signals intelligence (SIGINT) effort that often placed it in competition with other members of the Intelligence Community, according to a significant collection of declassified documentation posted today by the National Security Archive (www.nsarchive.org). As described in a previously Top-Secret multi-volume history of the CIA's role from 1947-1970 &mdash obtained by the Archive through the Freedom of Information Act &mdash the CIA regularly struggled with not only Soviet counterintelligence and international upheavals like the Iranian revolution but overlapping missions and domestic budgetary battles with the National Security Agency (NSA) and other entities during the height of the Cold War.

Among the CIA's successes described in the documents that make up today's posting was the creation of the RHYOLITE geosynchronous satellite program which allowed continuous coverage of missile telemetry and targets in Eurasia. Agency operatives were also able to tap into radio-telephone communications of Communist leaders as they rode in limousines around Moscow, to track Soviet missile launches from two secret stations inside the Shah's Iran, and to intercept Warsaw Pact communications from a tunnel dug under East Berlin.

These achievements were not without bureaucratic costs. The RHYOLITE program raised hackles at both the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), which oversaw much of U.S. satellite intelligence activity, and the NSA, whose personnel initially found themselves cut out of the program. Overseas, the Soviet limo bugging ended after a news report disclosed it and may also have led to the execution of the Soviet agent who installed the listening devices. After the Shah fled Iran during the 1979 revolution, the founders of the Islamic Republic quickly seized the two sensitive US monitoring sites, handing a major loss to American intelligence.

These and other aspects of the CIA's long involvement with SIGINT are described in over forty documents obtained by Archive Senior Fellow Jeffrey Richelson through Freedom of Information Act requests, archival research, and other websites.

  • The History of SIGINT in the Central Intelligence Agency, 1947-1970 (Document 16)
  • Guidelines governing the CIA acquisition and retention, via COMINT, of information on U.S. persons, including the one prepared in response to President Obama's presidential directive on signals intelligence (Document 43)
  • A note from the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) concerning the need to improve the CIA's ability to employ audio surveillance devices in pursuit of foreign intelligence (Document 6)
  • Several items from different decades discussing the CIA-NSA relationship, and covering topics as diverse as the SIGINT provided by NSA to CIA, and CIA human intelligence support to NSA (Documents 27, 28, 30, 31, 34, 36, 38)
  • Memos and an extract from an official concerning the CIA's RHYOLITE signals intelligence satellite program, including the ongoing conflict with the NSA and National Reconnaissance Office over the program (Documents 8, 10, 11, 13)
  • A memo written by DCI Stansfield Turner concerning a discussion with Secretary of Defense Harold Brown about modifying a satellite to replace some of the capability lost with the closure of the CIA's TACKSMAN sites in Iran (Document 32)
  • Memos prepared in response to the CIA's Family Jewels inquiries, including one indicating testing of a U-2 carried COMINT system (LONG SHAFT ) in the United States (Document 21)

Abstract

This ongoing column is dedicated to the challenging clinical interface between psychiatry and primary care—two fields that are inexorably linked.

Dysthymic disorder is a smoldering mood disturbance characterized by a long duration (at least two years in adults) as well as transient periods of normal mood. The disorder is fairly common in the US general population (3𠄶%) as well as in primary care (7%) and mental health settings (up to one-third of psychiatric outpatients). While the etiology of dysthymia remains unknown, there appears to be a genetic susceptibility, which may manifest in the presence of various psychosocial stressors. While the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria are fairly clear, the disorder can be easily under-recognized for a variety of reasons. Treatment may include pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, although the overall treatment course is oftentimes characterized by protracted symptoms and relapses.


Horse Racing in Texas: the history of the Arlington Downs racetrack

The purpose of The Compass Rose is to raise awareness of Special Collections’ resources and to foster the use of these resources. The blog series also reports significant new programs, initiatives, and acquisitions of Special Collections.

One of the more interesting chapters in Arlington’s history is the story of the now-defunct Arlington Downs. As Arlington’s only horse racing track, the Downs operated from its construction in the late 1920s to its demolition in 1957. Since it no longer exists, artifacts documenting its history are all the more significant. The University of Texas at Arlington’s Special Collections includes many objects that chronicle the history of the Downs, including maps, newspaper clippings, and other ephemera.

A map from 1933 showing the layout of Arlington Downs.

An aerial photograph of the Downs from the 1930s. From the Fort Worth Star-Telegram collection.

The Downs was the vision of North Texas native William T. Waggoner. The Waggoner family made its fortune first in the cattle trade then from the oil boom. In the late 1920s, the then-millionaire William T. Waggoner began construction of the Downs, a project costing about $3 million. On November 1, 1929, the Downs was opened and on November 6, 1929, it began its inaugural season, one that witnessed 66 races for purses totaling nearly $67,000. In its first season, over 81,000 people attended over eleven days of racing. At the time pari-mutuel wagering was illegal in Texas, so the only money changing hands was through private transactions. Pari-mutuel betting, a system in which all money wagered is placed into a pool and payoffs are calculated according to odds, and from which the race track receives a share, was one of the primary ways that tracks made money. Since Waggoner could not profit from this kind of gambling, he lost approximately $50,000 on the 1929 season.

A publicity photo for Arlington Downs, circa 1933. From the Fort Worth Star-Telegram collection.

A ticket for the 1934 races at the Downs.

During the Depression, Texas had a large fiscal deficit. Legislators began to view pari-mutuel betting as one way of increasing the state’s revenue. In 1933, the state legislature passed an appropriations bill that legalized pari-mutuel betting in Texas and created the Texas Racing Commission. The state would receive two percent of all wagers. The legislature projected that it would receive approximately $500,000 every year from the revenue made from race tracks. The first race with pari-mutuel betting was held in October of 1933.

Charts for the races were published in the Fort Worth Star-Telegram. This is a chart for a 1930 race.

Crowds line the track at the Downs in the 1930s. From the Fort Worth Star-Telegram collection.

Although it was built as a horse racing track, the Downs was also used for other purposes. During World War II, it was employed as a motor pool where vehicles were assembled and tested. In 1945, it began hosting a rodeo. From 1947 to 1950, it was home to AAA Championship car races. Special Collections even has a souvenir program of a Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer sweepstakes for the film To Please a Lady, which starred Clark Gable. On the program, Gable has written “To the race fans in Texas, good luck, Clark Gable.”

A souvenir program from the 1950 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer sweepstakes for the film To Please a Lady, which starred Clark Gable. On the program, Gable has written, “To the race fans in Texas, good luck, Clark Gable.”

Will Rogers, a good friend of the Waggoner family, talking to W. T. Waggoner, who is sitting in his car at Arlington Downs in 1933. From the Fort Worth Star-Telegram collection.

Although the Downs was an important institution in Texas horse racing, it was in operation for less than thirty years. In 1937, only four years after legitimizing pari-mutuel betting, Texas passed a bill that banned it. Since tracks could no longer profit from betting, this ban proved to be the death knell for many Texas tracks, including the Downs. In November 1953, some of the Down’s buildings and barns were demolished. Then in July 1957, the grandstands were demolished.

Buddy Haas on Tiempo in 1934. From the J.W. Dunlop photograph collection.

Debutantes watching the races, circa 1935. From the Fort Worth Star-Telegram collection.

The ban on pari-mutuel betting in Texas would last for fifty years. In 1987, voters passed a referendum that again legalized pari-mutuel betting and once again established the Texas Racing Commission. Of course, this came thirty years too late to save the Downs. Today, the only traces that remain of the Downs are a historical marker, placed in 1978, as well as a fountain and historical marker, placed in 2016.


Tingey II DD- 272 - History

Hull 1376 through Hull 1397

This is a complete list of all Fore River Shipyard production, listed in order by Fore River hull number. Small repair or overhaul jobs that were not assigned hull numbers are not included. This listing includes the Quincy Fore River yard under the ownership of the Fore River Engine Co. (1900-1901), the Fore River Ship & Engine Co. (1901-1913) and Bethlehem Steel (1913-1963) also included are the original Fore River Engine Co. yard at East Braintree (1884-1903), and the Bethlehem Steel yard at Squantum (1918-1920).

This list was compiled and is maintained by Andrew Toppan, using sources listed at the bottom of the document.

The first column is the Fore River hull number, followed by a designation for the yard in which the ship was built, the vessel's name, the type/size/class of the vessel, the owner/customer for the vessel, the type of work done (new construction, overhaul, etc.), the date the vessel was delivered, and the fate or status of the vessel. For ships that remain in existence the current name is listed in the status/fate column if no name is listed, the vessel retains its original name.

The yard designations are as follows:
EBr = East Braintree Yard, original yard of Fore River Engine Co.
Q = Quincy Fore River yard (main yard), under all corporate names.
S = Squantum Yard, WWI emergency annex to Bethlehem Quincy.

For conversions and reconditionings, the vessel's new name (at completion) is listed under "name", the original name and description are listed under "type", and the nature of the conversion is listed under "work type".

Fore River Shipyard Production Record
Hull Yard Name Type/Descr. Owner Work Type Delivered Fate or Status
100EBr Sally Yacht Lyman New Unk. Unknown
101EBr Caprice Yacht Robinson New Unk. Unknown
102EBr Eleanor Yacht Clapp New Unk. Unknown
103EBr Lawrence
(DD 8)
Lawrence Class (420 Ton) Destroyer US Navy New 7 Apr 1903 Scrapped 1920
104EBr MacDonough
(DD 9)
Lawrence Class (420 Ton) Destroyer US Navy New 3 July 1903 Scrapped 1920
105EBr Jule Yacht J. Arthur New 12 June 1899 Unknown
106EBr Light Vessel No. 72 113' Lightship (Diamond Shoals Station) US Light House Service New 13 Feb 1901 Discarded 1937
107Q Des Moines
(C-15)
Denver Class 3rd Class Cruiser US Navy New 5 Mar 1904 Scrapped 1930
108Q New Jersey
(BB 16)
Virginia Class Battleship US Navy New 12 May 1906 Target 5 Sept 1922
109Q Rhode Island
(BB 17)
Virginia Class Battleship US Navy New 12 Feb 1906 Scrapped 1924
110Q Thomas W. Lawson 404' 7-Masted Coal Schooner Coastwise Transportation Co. New 10 Sept 1902 Wrecked 13 Dec 1907
111Q -- 317' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 6 Dec 1902 Unknown
112Q -- 317' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 6 Dec 1902 Unknown
113Q William L. Douglas 353' 6-Masted Coal Schooner Coastwise Transportation Co. New 11 Nov 1903 Unknown
114Q Boston 317' Freighter New England Navigation Co. New 16 July 1904 Scrapped 1934
115Q Providence 396' Coastal Passenger Steamer New England Navigation Co. New 21 Mar 1905 Scrapped 1938
116Q -- 317' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 17 Nov 1903 Unknown
117Q -- 317' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 12 Dec 1903 Unknown
118Q -- 317' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 10 Feb 1904 Unknown
119Q -- 317' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 10 Feb 1904 Unknown
120Q Vermont
(BB 20)
Connecticut Class Battleship US Navy New 11 Feb 1907 Scrapped 1924
121Q No. 3 167' Tank Barge Standard Oil Co. New 23 Nov 1904 Unknown
122Q No. 4 167' Tank Barge Standard Oil Co. New 16 Dec 1904 Unknown
123Q No. 1 67' Submarine Japanese Navy New 5 Oct 1904 Discarded 1921
124Q No. 2 67' Submarine Japanese Navy New 5 Oct 1904 Discarded 1921
125Q No. 3 67' Submarine Japanese Navy New 5 Oct 1904 Discarded 1921
126Q No. 4 67' Submarine Japanese Navy New 5 Oct 1904 Discarded 1921
127Q No. 5 67' Submarine Japanese Navy New 5 Oct 1904 Discarded 1921
128Q Octopus
(SS 9)
C-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 16 May 1908 Discarded 1920
129Q Viper
(SS 10)
B-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 16 Oct 1907 Target 1922
130Q Cuttlefish
(SS 11)
B-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 16 Oct 1907 Target 1922
131Q Tarantula
(SS 12)
B-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 29 Nov 1907 Target 1922
132Q Birmingham
(CS-2)
Chester Class Scout Cruiser US Navy New 10 Apr 1908 Scrapped 1930
133Q Salem
(CS-3)
Chester Class Scout Cruiser US Navy New 27 July 1908 Scrapped 1930
134Q Spray 136' Trawler Bay State Fishing Co. New 6 Dec 1905 Unknown
135Q Creole 410' Passenger Steamer South Pacific Co. New 22 Dec 1907 Scrapped 1937
136Q South Shore 207' Coastal Passenger Steamer Nantasket Beach Co. New 16 June 1906 Wrecked 28 Apr 1928
137Q Satilla 313' Freighter Brunswick Steamship Co. New 10 Nov 1906 War Loss 7 Feb 1917
138Q Ochmulgee 313' Freighter Brunswick Steamship Co. New 4 Apr 1907 Scrapped 1929
139Q Ogeechee 313' Freighter Brunswick Steamship Co. New 29 Dec 1906 War Loss 29 July 1917
140Q Ossabaw 313' Freighter Brunswick Steamship Co. New 24 Feb 1907 Scrapped 1933
141Q Everett 400' Collier New England Coal & Coke New 19 Oct 1907 Scrapped 1948
142Q Malden 400' Collier New England Coal & Coke New 2 Dec 1907 Collision 17 Sept 1921
143Q Melrose 400' Collier New England Coal & Coke New 11 Jan 1908 Scrapped 1947
144Q Altamaha 313' Freighter Brunswick Steamship Co. New 30 Dec 1907 Barged 1924 Abandoned 1933
145Q New England 131' Lighter New England Navigation Co. New 2 Nov 1907 Unknown
146Q Transfer No. 21 125' Harbor Tug New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 19 Jan 1908 Unknown
147Q Light Vessel No. 90 135' Lightship (Hedge Fence Station) US Light House Service New 14 May 1908 Discarded 1955
148Q Light Vessel No. 91 135' Lightship (Relief No. 1) US Light House Service New 29 May 1908 Discarded 1963
149Q Light Vessel No. 92 135' Lightship (Relief No. 2) US Light House Service New 15 June 1908 Discarded 1954
150Q Light Vessel No. 93 135' Lightship (Swiftsure Station) US Light House Service New 6 July 1908 Discarded 1955
151Q North Dakota
(BB 29)
Delaware Class Battleship US Navy New 10 Apr 1910 Scrapped 1931
152Q Stingray
(SS 13)
C-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 16 Oct 1909 Discarded 1920
153Q Tarpon
(SS 14)
C-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 14 Oct 1909 Discarded 1920
154Q Bonita
(SS 15)
C-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 20 Oct 1909 Discarded 1920
155Q Snapper
(SS 16)
C-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 22 Oct 1909 Discarded 1920
156Q Narwhal
(SS 17)
D-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 7 Oct 1909 Scrapped 1922
157Q Grayling
(SS 18)
D-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 11 Oct 1909 Scrapped 1922
158Q Salmon
(SS 19)
D-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 1 Sept 1910 Scrapped 1922
159Q General R. Anderson 98' Harbor Tug US Army New 25 Jan 1909 Unknown
160Q General R. Arnold 98' Harbor Tug US Army New 29 Jan 1909 Unknown
161Q General R.B. Ayers 98' Harbor Tug US Army New 9 Feb 1909 Unknown
162Q General J.M. Brannan 98' Harbor Tug US Army New 13 Feb 1909 Unknown
163Q General H. Brown 98' Harbor Tug US Army New 20 Feb 1909 Unknown
164Q General G.B. Getty 98' Harbor Tug US Army New 1 Mar 1909 Unknown
165Q General B. Jackson 98' Harbor Tug US Army New 8 Mar 1909 Unknown
166Q General M. Randol 98' Harbor Tug US Army New 19 Mar 1909 Unknown
167Q No. 54 327' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 21 Nov 1908 Unknown
168Q No. 55 327' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 5 Dec 1908 Unknown
169Q No. 56 327' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 22 Dec 1908 Unknown
170Q No. 57 327' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 2 Jan 1909 Unknown
171Q No. 58 327' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 20 Jan 1909 Unknown
172Q No. 59 327' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 13 Feb 1909 Unknown
173Q No. 60 327' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 18 Feb 1909 Unknown
174Q Transfer No. 22 125' Harbor Tug New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 4 May 1909 Unknown
175Q Perkins
(DD 26)
Roe Class (700 Ton) Destroyer US Navy New 15 Nov 1910 Scrapped 1935
176Q Sterett
(DD 27)
Roe Class (700 Ton) Destroyer US Navy New 12 Dec 1910 Scrapped 1935
177Q Aloha 218' Yacht A.C. James New 11 May 1910 Unknown
178Q Herman Frasch 361' Bulk Freighter Union Sulphur Co. New 5 Apr 1910 Collision 4 Oct 1918
179Q E-1
(SS 24)
E-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 13 Feb 1912 Scrapped 1922
180Q E-2
(SS 25)
E-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 14 Feb 1912 Scrapped 1925
181Q Walke
(DD 34)
Pauling Class (700 Ton) Destroyer US Navy New 18 July 1911 Scrapped 1935
182Q No. 13 128' Ammunition Lighter US Navy New 19 Jan 1910 Unknown
183Q Miguelito 131' Molasses Lighter Porto Rico Merchantile Co. New 29 Jan 1910 Unknown
184Q Fifi 150' Molasses Barge Cuba Dist. Co. New 31 Jan 1910 Unknown
185Q Graziela 150' Molasses Barge Cuba Dist. Co. New 31 Jan 1910 Unknown
186Q Santa Maria II 115' Molasses Barge Columbus Dist. Co. New 5 Feb 1910 Unknown
187Q Rivadavia Rivadavia Class Battleship Argentine Navy New 27 Aug 1914 Scrapped 1956
188Q Currier 386' Tanker Cuba Dist. Co. New 15 Dec 1910 Scuttled 8 June 1944
189Q Foam 126' Trawler Bay State Fishing Co. New 14 Sept 1910 Unknown
190Q -- 250' Carfloat Pennsylvania RR New 28 Dec 1910 Unknown
191Q -- 250' Carfloat Pennsylvania RR New 17 Dec 1910 Unknown
192Q Sankaty 195' Coastal Passenger Steamer New Bedford Steamship Co. New 14 Apr 1911 Sunk 27 Oct 1964
193Q Ripple 126' Trawler Bay State Fishing Co. New 23 Dec 1910 Unknown
194Q New Orleans 315' Suction Dredge US Army Corps of Engineers New 4 Apr 1912 Unknown
195Q Crest 126' Trawler Bay State Fishing Co. New 29 Nov 1910 Unknown
196Q Henley
(DD 39)
Monaghan Class (700 Ton) Destroyer US Navy New 5 Dec 1912 Scrapped 1934
197Q Newton 406' Collier New England Coal & Coke New 20 Nov 1911 Scrapped 1947
198Q K-1
(SS 32)
K-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 17 Mar 1914 Scrapped 1931
199Q K-2
(SS 33)
K-Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 28 Jan 1914 Scrapped 1931
200Q Swell 129' Beam Trawler Bay State Fishing Co. New 29 Dec 1911 Unknown
201Q Surf 129' Beam Trawler Bay State Fishing Co. New 4 Jan 1912 Unknown
202Q Duncan
(DD 46)
Cassin Class (1000 Ton) Destroyer US Navy New 30 Aug 1913 Scrapped 1935
203Q K-5
(SS 36)
K Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 19 Aug 1914 Scrapped 1931
204Q K-6
(SS 37)
K Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 5 Sept 1914 Scrapped 1931
205Q Nevada
(BB 36)
Nevada Class Battleship US Navy New 11 Mar 1916 Target 31 July 1948
206Q Fulton
(AS 1)
Fulton Class Submarine Tender US Navy New 2 Dec 1914 Discarded 1934
207Q Nelson 386' Tanker Cuba Dist. Co. New 17 Nov 1912 Scrapped 1958
208Q Frieda 314' Bulk Freighter Union Sulphur Co. New 19 Feb 1913 Torpedoed 20 Oct 1943
209Q Richmond 436' Tanker Standard Oil Co. New 23 Sept 1913 Scrapped 1949
210Q No. 61 342' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 14 June 1913 Unknown
211Q No. 62 342' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 9 July 1913 Unknown
212Q Wave 129' Beam Trawler Bay State Fishing Co. New 2 Sept 1913 Unknown
213Q Billow 129' Beam Trawler Bay State Fishing Co. New 15 Aug 1913 Unknown
214Q Breaker 129' Beam Trawler Bay State Fishing Co. New 26 Aug 1913 Unknown
215Q Cushing
(DD 55)
O'Brien Class (1000 Ton) Destroyer US Navy New 21 Aug 1915 Scrapped 1936
216Q No. 63 342' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 12 Aug 1913 Unknown
217Q No. 64 342' Carfloat New York, New Haven & Hartford Ry New 1 Sept 1913 Unknown
218Q Amolco 329' Tanker Boston Molasses Co. New 25 Jan 1914 Scrapped 1953
219Q L 1
(SS 40)
L Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 11 Apr 1916 Scrapped 1922
220Q L-2
(SS 41)
L Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 11 Apr 1916 Scrapped 1933
221Q L-3
(SS 42)
L Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 21 Apr 1916 Scrapped 1933
222Q L-4
(SS 43)
L Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 4 May 1916 Scrapped 1922
223Q M-1
(SS 47)
M Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 14 Feb 1918 Scrapped 1922
224Q Atlantic 405' Freighter J.S. Emery Co. New 22 July 1914 Torpedoed 12 Sept 1917
225Q Pacific 405' Freighter J.S. Emery Co. New 29 Sept 1914 Lost 1/1921
226Q Tucker
(DD 57)
Tucker Class (1000 Ton) Destroyer US Navy New 10 Apr 1916 Scrapped 1937
227Q L-9
(SS 49)
L Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 4 Aug 1916 Scrapped 1934
228Q L-8
(SS 50)
L Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 2 Aug 1916 Scrapped 1922
229Q L-11
(SS 51)
L Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 15 Aug 1916 Scrapped 1933
230Q H-11 H Class Submarine Royal Navy New 2 Dec 1915 Discarded 1921
231Q H-12 H Class Submarine Royal Navy New 2 Dec 1915 Discarded 1922
232Q H-13 H Class Submarine Royal Navy New 2 Dec 1915 Discarded 1949
233Q H-14 H Class Submarine Royal Navy New 2 Dec 1915 Scrapped 1925
234Q H-15 H Class Submarine Royal Navy New 2 Dec 1915 Scrapped 1925
235Q H-16 H Class Submarine Royal Navy New 7 Dec 1915 Discarded 1945
236Q H-17 H Class Submarine Royal Navy New 7 Dec 1915 Discarded 1945
237Q H-18 H Class Submarine Royal Navy New 7 Dec 1915 Discarded 1945
238Q H-19 H Class Submarine Royal Navy New 9 Dec 1915 Discarded 1953
239Q H-20 H Class Submarine Royal Navy New 9 Dec 1915 Discarded 1953
240Q -- H Class Submarine Royal Navy New -- Cancelled
241Q -- H Class Submarine Royal Navy New -- Cancelled
242Q Sampson
(DD 63)
Sampson Class (1000 Ton) Destroyer US Navy New 24 July 1916 Scrapped 1936
243Q Rowan
(DD 64)
Sampson Class (1000 Ton) Destroyer US Navy New 24 July 1916 Scrapped 1939
244Q Texas 432' Tanker Texas Oil Co. New 18 Feb 1916 Scrapped 1950
245Q New York 432' Tanker Texas Oil Co. New 9 Apr 1916 Scrapped 1950
246Q AA-1
(SS 52)
AA Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 30 Jan 1920 Scrapped 1930
247Q Cubadist 406' Tanker Cuba Dist. Co. New 26 May 1916 Lost 2/1920
248Q Edward Luckenbach 456' Freighter Edward F. Luckenbach New 28 Nov 1916 Collision, sunk 21 July 1939
249Q Sucrosa 406' Tanker Cuba Dist. Co. New 30 June 1916 Scrapped 1946
250Q Isaac Peral M Class Submarine Spanish Navy New 25 Jan 1917 Hulked 1930
251Q Julia Luckenbach 456' Freighter Edward F. Luckenbach New 25 Jan 1917 Collision 23 Sept 1943
252Q Mielero 406' Tanker Cuba Dist. Co. New 14 Feb 1917 Sunk 26 Jan 1920
253Q Pennsylvania 432' Tanker Texas Oil Co. New 30 June 1917 Scrapped 1948
254Q Virginia 432' Tanker Texas Oil Co. New 29 July 1917 Scrapped 1947
255Q Ingeniero Luis A. Huergo 343' Tanker Argentine Navy New 30 Apr 1917 Scrapped 1960
256Q O-3
(SS 64)
O Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 14 June 1918 Scrapped 1946
257Q O-4
(SS 65)
O Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 28 May 1918 Scrapped 1946
258Q O-5
(SS 66)
O Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 8 June 1918 Scrapped 1925
259Q O-6
(SS 67)
O Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 11 June 1918 Scrapped 1946
260Q O-7
(SS 68)
O Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 4 July 1918 Scrapped 1946
261Q O-8
(SS 69)
O Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 11 July 1918 Scrapped 1946
262Q O-9
(SS 70)
O Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 27 July 1918 Lost 20 June 1941
263Q O-10
(SS 71)
O Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 17 Aug 1918 Scrapped 1946
264Q K.I. Luckenbach 469' Freighter Edward F. Luckenbach New 3 Feb 1918 Scrapped 1954
265Q F.J. Luckenbach 469' Freighter Edward F. Luckenbach New 28 Nov 1917 Scrapped 1951
266Q Unknown
267Q Katrina Luckenbach 469' Freighter Edward F. Luckenbach New 18 May 1918 Scrapped 1953
268Q George W. Barnes 432' Tanker Petroleum Transp. Co. New 5 June 1918 Scrapped 1948
269Q W.L. Steed 432' Tanker Petroleum Transp. Co. New 9 Sept 1918 Torpedoed 23 Jan 1942
270Q T-2
(SF 2)
AA Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 7 Jan 1922 Scrapped 1930
271Q T-3
(SF 3)
AA Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 7 Dec 1920 Scrapped 1930
272Q Nantasket 406' Freighter Emergency Fleet Corp. New 16 Oct 1918 Scrapped 1939
273Q Cohasset 406' Freighter Emergency Fleet Corp. New 30 Nov 1918 Scrapped 1937
274Q Little
(DD 79)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 5 Apr 1918 Sunk 5 Sept 1942
275Q Kimberley
(DD 80)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 27 Apr 1918 Scrapped 1922
276Q Sigourney
(DD 81)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 14 May 1918 Scrapped 1947
277Q Gregory
(DD 82)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 31 May 1918 Sunk 5 Sept 1942
278Q Stringham
(DD 83)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 2 June 1918 Scrapped 1946
279Q Dyer
(DD 84)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 1 June 1918 Scrapped 1936
280Q Colhoun
(DD 85)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 23 May 1918 Bombed 30 Aug 1942
281Q Stevens
(DD 86)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 23 May 1918 Scrapped 1936
282Q R-1
(SS 78)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 16 Dec 1918 Scrapped 1946
283Q R-2
(SS 79)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 24 Jan 1919 Scrapped 1946
284Q R-3
(SS 80)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 17 Apr 1919 Scrapped 1948
285Q R-4
(SS 81)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 28 Mar 1919 Scrapped 1946
286Q R-5
(SS 82)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 15 Apr 1919 Scrapped 1946
287Q R-6
(SS 83)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 1 May 1919 Scrapped 1946
288Q R-7
(SS 84)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 12 June 1919 Scrapped 1946
289Q R-8
(SS 85)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 21 Jul 1919 Target 19 Aug 1936
290Q R-9
(SS 86)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 30 July 1919 Scrapped 1946
291Q R-10
(SS 87)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 20 Aug 1919 Scrapped 1946
292Q R-11
(SS 88)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 5 Sept 1919 Scrapped 1948
293Q R-12
(SS 89)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 23 Sept 1919 Lost 12 June 1943
294Q R-13
(SS 90)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 17 Oct 1919 Scrapped 1946
295Q R-14
(SS 91)
R Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 24 Dec 1919 Scrapped 1946
296Q S-1
(SS 105)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Co. for US Navy New 5 June 1920 Scrapped 1945
297Q Lewis Luckenbach 527' Freighter Edward F. Luckenbach New 8 May 1919 Scrapped 1957
299Q Andrea Luckenbach 527' Freighter Edward F. Luckenbach New 12 June 1919 Torpedoed 10 Mar 1943
299Q Unknown
300Q Lexington
(CC 1)
Lexington Class Battlecruiser US Navy New -- Suspended 8 Feb 1922 Sunk 8 May 1942
1300Q Lexington
(CV 2)
Lexington Class Battlecruiser US Navy Completion as Lexington Class Aircraft Carrier 14 Dec 1927 Sunk 8 May 1942
301Q Bell
(DD 95)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 1 Aug 1918 Discarded 1936
302Q Stribling
(DD 96)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 16 Aug 1918 Target 1936
303Q Murray
(DD 97)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 20 Aug 1918 Scrapped 1936
304Q Israel
(DD 98)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 13 Sept 1918 Scrapped 1939
305Q Luce
(DD 99)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 11 Sept 1918 Scrapped 1936
306Q Maury
(DD 100)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 23 Sept 1918 Scrapped 1934
307Q Lansdale
(DD 101)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 26 Oct 1918 Scrapped 1939
308Q Mahan
(DD 102)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 24 Oct 1918 Scrapped 1931
309Q S-19
(SS 124)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 16 Aug 1922 Scuttled 18 Dec 1938
310Q S-18
(SS 123)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 17 May 1922 Scrapped 1947
311Q S-20
(SS 125)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 25 Mar 1922 Scrapped 1946
312Q S-21
(SS 126)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 6 Sept 1922 Target 23 Mar 1945
313Q S-22
(SS 127)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 4 Apr 1922 Scrapped 1946
314Q S-23
(SS 128)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 2 May 1922 Scrapped 1947
315Q S-24
(SS 129)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 3 Aug 1922 Destroyed 25 Aug 1947
316Q S-25
(SS 130)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 24 June 1922 Lost 2 May 1942
317Q S-26
(SS 131)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 18 Sept 1922 Collision 24 Jan 1942
318Q S-27
(SS 132)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 29 Nov 1922 Wrecked 19 June 1942
319Q S-28
(SS 133)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 14 Oct 1922 Lost 4 July 1944
320Q S-29
(SS 134)
S-1 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 11 Dec 1922 Scrapped 1947
321Q Palmer
(DD 161)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 22 Nov 1918 Mined & Bombed 7 Jan 1945
322Q Thatcher
(DD 162)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 14 Jan 1919 Scrapped 1946
323Q Walker
(DD 163)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 31 Jan 1919 Hulked 1939 Scuttled 28 Dec 1941
324Q Crosby
(DD 164)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 24 Jan 1919 Scrapped 1946
325Q Meredith
(DD 165)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 29 Jan 1919 Scrapped 1936
326Q Bush
(DD 166)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 19 Feb 1919 Scrapped 1936
327Q Cowell
(DD 167)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 17 Mar 1919 Scrapped 1949
328Q Maddox
(DD 168)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 10 Mar 1919 Scrapped 1952
329Q Foote
(DD 169)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 21 Mar 1919 Scrapped 1949
330Q Kalk
(DD 170)
Wickes Class Destroyer US Navy New 29 Mar 1919 Scrapped 1945
331Q Belknap
(DD 251)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 28 Apr 1919 Scrapped 1946
332Q McCook
(DD 252)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 30 Apr 1919 Torpedoed 20 Sept 1943
333Q McCalla
(DD 253)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 19 May 1919 Torpedoed 19 Dec 1941
334Q Rodgers
(DD 254)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 22 July 1919 Hulked 1943 Scrapped 1945
335Q Osmond Ingram
(DD 255)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 27 June 1919 Scrapped 1946
336Q Bancroft
(DD 256)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 30 June 1919 Collision 14 July 1945
337Q Welles
(DD 257)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 2 Sept 1919 Bombed 5 Dec 1940 Scrapped 1944
338Q Aulick
(DD 258)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 25 July 1919 Scrapped 1948
339Q Turner
(DD 259)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 23 Sept 1919 Hulked 1936 Discarded 1946
340Q Gillis
(DD 260)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 3 Sept 1919 Scrapped 1946
341S Delphy
(DD 261)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 30 Nov 1918 Wrecked 8 Sept 1923
342S McDermut
(DD 262)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 27 Mar 1919 Scrapped 1932
343S Laub
(DD 263)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 17 Mar 1919 Scrapped 1947
344S McLanahan
(DD 264)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 5 Apr 1919 Hulked 1943 Scrapped 1946
345S Edwards
(DD 265)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 24 Apr 1919 Scrapped 1946
346S Greene
(DD 266)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 9 May 1919 Wrecked 9 Oct 1945
347S Ballard
(DD 267)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 5 June 1919 Scrapped 1946
348S Shubrick
(DD 268)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 3 July 1919 Scrapped 1945
349S Bailey
(DD 269)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 27 June 1919 Scrapped 1945
350S Thornton
(DD 270)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 15 July 1919 Collision 5 Apr 1945 Abandoned
351S Morris
(DD 271)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 21 July 1919 Scrapped 1936
352S Tingey
(DD 272)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 25 July 1919 Scrapped 1936
353S Swasey
(DD 273)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 31 July 1919 Mined 27 Sept 1944
354S Meade
(DD 274)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 8 Sept 1919 Scrapped 1947
355S Sinclair
(DD 275)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 26 Aug 1919 Scrapped 1935
356S McCawley
(DD 276)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 29 Aug 1919 Scrapped 1931
357S Moody
(DD 277)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 26 Sept 1919 Scuttled 2/1933
358S Henshaw
(DD 278)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 24 Sept 1919 Scrapped 1930
359S Meyer
(DD 279)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 30 Sept 1919 Scrapped 1930
360S Doyen
(DD 280)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 10 Oct 1919 Scrapped 1930
361S Sharkey
(DD 281)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 20 Oct 1919 Scrapped 1931
362S Toucey
(DD 282)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 31 Oct 1919 Scrapped 1934
363S Breck
(DD 283)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 28 Nov 1919 Scrapped 1931
364S Isherwood
(DD 284)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 26 Nov 1919 Scrapped 1934
365S Case
(DD 285)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 29 Nov 1919 Scrapped 1931
366S Lardner
(DD 286)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 10 Dec 1919 Scrapped 1931
367S Putnam
(DD 287)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 18 Dec 1919 Scrapped 1931
368S Worden
(DD 288)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 23 Dec 1919 Scrapped 1931
369S Flusser
(DD 289)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 31 Dec 1919 Scrapped 1930
370S Dale
(DD 290)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 14 Feb 1920 Scrapped 1931
371S Converse
(DD 291)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 27 Apr 1920 Scrapped 1931
372S Reid
(DD 292)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 6 Nov 1919 Scrapped 1931
373S Billingsley
(DD 293)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 7 Feb 1920 Scrapped 1931
374S Charles Ausburn
(DD 294)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 28 Feb 1920 Scrapped 1931
375S Osborne
(DD 295)
Clemson Class Destroyer US Navy New 17 May 1920 Scrapped 1931
1376Q Watertown 432' Tanker US Shipping Board New 16 July 1919 Scrapped 1948
1377Q Baldbutte 432' Tanker US Shipping Board New 13 Aug 1919 Scrapped 1947
1378Q Baldhill 432' Tanker US Shipping Board New 20 Sept 1919 Scrapped 1948
1379Q Hadnot 432' Tanker US Shipping Board New 24 Oct 1919 Scrapped 1947
1380Q Hagan 432' Tanker US Shipping Board New 25 Nov 1919 Torpedoed 11 June 1942
1381Q Trimountain 432' Tanker US Shipping Board New 23 Dec 1919 Scrapped 1954
1382Q Raleigh
(CL 7)
Omaha Class Light Cruiser US Navy New 6 Feb 1924 Scrapped 1946
1383Q Detroit
(CL 8)
Omaha Class Light Cruiser US Navy New 31 July 1923 Scrapped 1947
1384Q Cubore 468' Ore Freighter Ore Steamship Co. New 2 Aug 1920 Unknown
1385Q China Arrow 485' Tanker Standard Transp. Co. New 1 Oct 1920 Torpedoed 5 Feb 1942
1386Q Japan Arrow 485' Tanker Standard Transp. Co. New 24 Nov 1920 Unknown
1387Q India Arrow 485' Tanker Standard Transp. Co. New 17 Mar 1921 Torpedoed 5 Feb 1942
1388Q Java Arrow 485' Tanker Standard Transp. Co. New 24 May 1921 Scrapped 1959
1389Q S-42
(SS 153)
S-42 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 8 Aug 1923 Scrapped 1947
1390Q S-43
(SS 154)
S-42 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 11 July 1923 Scrapped 1946
1391Q S-44
(SS 155)
S-42 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 8 Jan 1924 Lost 7 Oct 1943
1392Q S-45
(SS 156)
S-42 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 27 Sept 1923 Scrapped 1947
1393Q S-46
(SS 157)
S-42 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 12 Nov 1923 Scrapped 1947
1394Q S-47
(SS 158)
S-42 Class Submarine Electric Boat Corp. for US Navy New 27 Feb 1924 Scrapped 1946
1395Q Agwibay 485' Tanker Atlantic, Gulf & West Indies Co. New 23 June 1921 Unknown
1396Q J. Fletcher Farrell 446' Tanker Sinclair Navigation Co. New 6 June 1921 Unknown
1397Q Wm. Boyce Thompson 446' Tanker Sinclair Navigation Co. New 28 July 1921 Torpedoed 23 May 1942

Major Sources:
List of Ships Built at the Quincy Yard . Central Technical Department of Bethlehem Steel Company, Shipbuilding Division, Quincy, MA., with unofficial addenda.

Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships . Naval Historical Center, Washington, D.C., 1959-1991.

Special thanks to Michael Pryce for providing many ship fates, and to everyone who has provided updated information about these ships.


21" (53.3 cm) Mark 17

Ship Class Used On Destroyers
Date Of Design 1944
Date In Service 1945
Weight 4,800 lbs. (2,177 kg)
Overall Length 24 ft 0 in (7.315 m)
Explosive Charge 880 lbs. (399 kg) HBX
Range / Speed 18,000 yards (16,500 m) / 46 knots
Power Hydrogen Peroxide (Navol) turbine
Guidance Mark 12 Mod 3 gyro

Destroyer equivalent of the Mark 16. Development dropped in 1941, resumed in 1944 with 450 produced before the end of World War II. Not used in combat and removed from service in 1950.


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Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798–1939

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  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Online publication date: June 2012
  • Print publication year: 1983
  • Online ISBN: 9780511801990
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511801990
  • Subjects: History, History of Ideas and Intellectual History

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Book description

Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798–1939 is the most comprehensive study of the modernizing trend of political and social thought in the Arab Middle East. Albert Hourani studies the way in which ideas about politics and society changed during the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth centuries, in response to the expanding influence of Europe. His main attention is given to the movement of ideas in Egypt and Lebanon. He shows how two streams of thought, the one aiming to restate the social principles of Islam, and the other to justify the separation of religion from politics, flowed into each other to create the Egyptian and Arab nationalisms of the present century. The last chapter of the book surveys the main tendencies of thought in the post-war years. Since its publication in 1962, this book has been regarded as a modern classic of interpretation. It was reissued by the Cambridge University Press in 1983 and has subsequently sold over 8000 copies.

Reviews

‘This classic work is as fresh and interesting as when it was first published thirty years ago. It continues to command the field.’


USS Frank E. Evans : Disaster in the South China Sea

Niobrara is a very small town in Nebraska–so small it doesn’t have a cinema, and the locals could not have flocked to see Saving Private Ryan. But Niobrara has a memorial outside its library dedicated to the three Sage brothers, who were the first family group allowed to serve together on a U.S. warship after World War II. Radarman 3rd Class Gregory Sage and Seaman Recruits Gary Sage and Kelly Sage died together, along with 71 shipmates, on USS Frank E. Evans when the Australian aircraft carrier Melbourne literally cut their destroyer in two at 3 o’clock on the morning of June 3, 1969, in the South China Sea. Most of Evans’ 272-man crew were asleep at the time of the collision. Jolted awake by the impact, the Americans began a struggle to save their lives, if not their ship. The Australians soon joined in the desperate struggle.

Few Australians are aware of the collision that claimed 74 American lives during Operation Sea Spirit exercises at the height of the Vietnam War and led–in the face of tragedy–to a bond between sailors on either side of the Pacific. Now living in the United States, the retired skipper of the Australian carrier recalled the few awful minutes that changed the lives of hundreds of men. ‘It’s still very vivid, still bad memories, still a very traumatic occasion,’ said John Stevenson.

A court-martial and the inquiry that followed found Captain Stevenson not at fault, yet his career was doomed from the moment his crew readied Evans to take up plane guard/rescue position, as Melbourne prepared for night-flying operations. Earlier in the exercise, Melbourne had had a near miss that was fresh in Stevenson’s memory on June 3. ‘A couple of nights before one of the other [American] destroyers took a run at us,’ Stevenson recalled, but that time Melbourne had managed to get out of the destroyer’s path.

Melbourne had signaled Evans, one of five U.S., British and New Zealand destroyers on the inner screen, to prepare to take up the position of plane guard, 1,000 yards behind the carrier. It was the fifth time that night that Evans had carried out the maneuver. The sea was dead calm, the water moonlit. As an extra precaution, Melbourne had her navigation lights at full brilliance. Procedures had been clearly established for the smaller vessel to turn away from the carrier before falling into a position well behind. But instead, the American destroyer turned into the huge carrier’s path.

The June 3 collision is something former Sub-Lieutenant Graham Winterflood, a Westland Wessex helicopter pilot serving aboard Melbourne, won’t ever forget. ‘We were anti-submarine screen forward of the ship….’ he said. ‘We took off and were sent out on a heading ahead of Melbourne, and funnily enough, on the way there, I was the co-pilot and I could see a masthead light up ahead of us, so we had to dodge around that. Little did I know at the time that that was the USS Evans.’

Petty Officer Ron Baker was in Melbourne‘s radio room. ‘It was like riding over a piece of corrugated iron on a bicycle,’ he recalled. ‘There was a shuddering as we went over something and the initial reaction was, ‘We’ve run aground!’ Of course this was all split-second thinking, and then we realized we were in 1,100 fathoms of water so the chances of running aground were pretty slim. Another thought that went through our heads was that we’d hit a submarine,’ Baker added, ‘because we knew there was a Russian submarine in the area monitoring the exercise.’

At that moment, Lieutenant Winterflood was hunting that submarine. ‘We were just about to lower our sonar ball, when the ship recalled us, saying they’d had a collision,’ he remembered. ‘We flew back to the Melbourne, and tied alongside was half a destroyer. It was an unbelievable sight.’

Melbourne had ridden over the destroyer with such an impact that one of Evans‘ lookouts, Seaman Marcus Rodriguez, was thrown into the air, landing on the flight deck of the carrier and suffering horrible injuries. In the less than three minutes it took Winterflood’s helicopter to return, the front section of the American ship had disappeared.

Aircrew and aircraft handlers were preparing to launch S-2E Tracker aircraft. Their engines were shut down immediately, and the crews rushed to help. Some dangled fire hoses over the carrier’s side as makeshift ladders, while others secured Evans‘ stern alongside Melbourne with wire cable.

‘It was all very quick,’ recalled Stevenson. ‘Very chaotic, but organized as far as the Melbourne was concerned. They all knew what they were doing. The stern half of the Evans was secured to the ship, and people hopped over the edge to help survivors back onto Melbourne.’

Ron Baker remembered: ‘Some of the [Melbourne] officers dropped cargo nets over the side and scrambled down. Four of them actually went through the aft section of the Evans to make sure no one was left on there after the Americans had climbed on board.’

Stevenson recalled that ‘Bob Burns, who’s now dead, was one of the stars of the side. He dived over the stern, and a lot of guys did that.’

‘He went over twice,’ recounted Baker. ‘He pulled in one guy who’d been crushed, got him in and was no sooner back on board than he spotted another bloke in the water, jumped over again and towed him to a lifeboat. He got the George Medal [the British Commonwealth’s second highest award for noncombat heroism].’ In the end, Melbourne crewmen received 15 Naval Board commendations, with two Queen’s commendations, two British Empire Medals, a Member of the British Empire and one [British Commonwealth] Air Force Cross.

It was a bright, moonlit night, but down in the shadow of Melbourne was blackness. Jock Donnelly used the 10-inch signal lamp as spotlight, calling to the rescuers, ‘There’s another one!’

Winterflood’s Wessex helicopter arrived overhead. ‘There were two or three helicopters airborne at the time,’ he recalled, ‘and while ours didn’t have a winch, we used our landing light to spotlight survivors, while the other two Wessexes used their winches.’

The unit citation awarded to Winterflood’s No. 817 Squadron by the U.S. secretary of the Navy gave this account: ‘Thirty-eight of the 111 men in the forward section of USS Frank E. Evans were able to escape or were thrown into the water. Within 25 minutes of the collision all these men had been returned to the Melbourne. The helicopters and men of 817 Squadron were called upon for maximum effort, not only during these first critical minutes when survivors were being illuminated in the water, but also during the more than 15 hours during which search operations continued.’

Overhead the helicopter crews were tired and stunned. Lieutenant Winterflood looked down on a scene alarmingly similar to the site of an accident five years earlier. ‘There was a lot of stuff in the water,’ he recalled. ‘There were life rafts, motor cutters getting around and helicopters with lights. But the actual sight of half a ship was very hard to come to grips with because, having seen it once before, it was hard to imagine the same thing could happen again.’

Back in 1964 HMAS Voyager had collided with Melbourne, killing 82. Captain Stevenson had that earlier tragedy in mind on the occasion of the near-collision with an American destroyer in the spring of 1969. ‘I now know what my friend Robbie [Captain John Robertson] went through,’ he wrote his wife. ‘He didn’t have a chance of dodging Voyager. This destroyer was much farther away from me, and I didn’t have much chance of avoiding her, but I just managed to get away.’ Little did Stevenson know that a few days later, when Evans crossed Melbourne‘s path, he would have an even better idea of the horror Captain Robertson had experienced.

The helicopters flew all day on June 3, 1969, landing for hot refueling and then returning to the search area. Petty Officer Baker spent the long hours sending hundreds of messages. He described that morning as something like a dream sequence. Baker reckoned the last of the 198 sailors saved from the South China Sea was Chief Petty Officer Larry Malilay.

‘Larry thought he was gone,’ Baker said. ‘He just drifted off, and for a while he could see and hear the choppers, but he was drifting away, and when he was finally rescued the pilot said, ‘Hang on, I think I can see someone swimming for the Philippines,’ and they winched him aboard.’

On board Melbourne the strangest scene was being played out. Captain Stevenson ordered the band onto the deck, and the beer vault was opened for the American survivors. Australian sailors recall their mates giving away the clothes from their backs. One sailor went below and brought up his entire kit, while the clothing store was opened and blankets were passed out. Eventually the survivors were lifted off and taken to USS Kearsarge. At that point, Baker heard a sound he’ll never forget: ‘As they were about to leave our ship, they stood on the quarterdeck and gave us three cheers. We had just cut their ship in half and here they were giving us three cheers.’

The end of USS Frank E. Evans was the beginning of an enduring bond between the two crews. Those who served aboard Melbourne have certainly suffered, but the survivors of the battered crew of Evans had it worse.

‘I think a lot of the crew suffered trauma,’ said Stevenson. ‘More so in the Evans than the Melbourne….A lot of them have lost wives and families, can’t work and are still having a bad time of it.’

Serving in her third conflict, the aging destroyer was on the gun line off the coast of Vietnam when she was moved out of the combat zone for Operation Sea Spirit. Like the two crews who’d served aboard Evans before them, the U.S. sailors had seen combat service. Yet the names of those who died in the collision have never been added to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. ‘It’s a cause of great hurt to the American survivors,’ said Stevenson. ‘Their shipmates were lost, but their names are not on the Wall, and they’re working hard to get that done, but they’re not making much progress.’

A few members of the Melbourne Association made a point of seeking out members of the Evans Association and getting together. In Ipswich, Australia, Ron Baker struck upon the idea of a reunion to mark the 25th anniversary. ‘When I broached the subject of a reunion 24 years after it happened, a lot of people said, ‘Forget it, let it rest,’ and I wondered if perhaps I was opening old wounds,’ Baker said.

Like Stevenson, Baker was well aware of how much former crewmen had suffered. Some had been in mental institutions, while others had become alcoholics. Nonetheless, a reunion was organized, and word came from the United States that members of the Evans Association would attend.

Shortly after that, Baker received a phone call from a woman in Alice Springs, Australia. ‘She said her husband was on the Melbourne when it happened,’ he recalled. ‘It was his first voyage, he was 18, and this was his introduction to the navy, and he’d been carrying the ghost of this thing for all those years. She put him on a plane and flew him over, and I reckon he went away a different man.’

The following year, Australians attended a memorial service at Arlington National Cemetery, and a commitment was made that representatives of the two crews would meet each year. Although cleared of any blame, Captain Stevenson, the former skipper of Australia’s last aircraft carrier, had his own burden to bear. ‘At that point I had a wife and two kids and a mortgage and all the rest of that stuff,’ he recalled. ‘I went out and lost everything. I had no future, no career, no pension, no nothing. It was a very big bang.’

Stevenson believes the bond that has grown is easing the trauma. In 1999 he was in Sydney, along with many others from the United States, for a 30th anniversary memorial service. The retired captain said, ‘It was such a pleasure to see the Melbourne team again, and I have an expectation that they’ll bring great warmth and humanity to the survivors of the Evans, and that together, they can ease their own pain.’

While the battle to get recognition for the American sailors lost in the 1969 accident continues in the States, those fallen seamen have been honored in Australia. According to Ron Baker, ‘They were killed doing their duty for their country, and it doesn’t matter if you’re killed by an enemy bullet or a friendly ship.’

This article was written by Phil Smith and originally published in the August 2001 issue of Vietnam Magazine.

For more great articles be sure to subscribe to Vietnam Magazine today!


Footnotes

[i]. R. Kane, R. Kane, N. Kaye, R. Mollica, T. Riley, P. Saucier, K. I. Snow, and L. Starr, “Managed Care Basics,” inManaged Care: Handbook for the Aging Network (Minneapolis: Long-Term Care Resource Center, University of Minnesota, 1996).

[ii]. D. Mitchell, Managed Care and Developmental Disabilities: Reconciling the Realities of Managed Care with the Individual Needs of Persons with Disabilities (Homewood, IL: High Tide Press, 1999).

[iii]. M. Freeland and C. Schendler, “Health Spending in the 1980s,” Health Care Financing Review 5 (Spring 1984): 7.

[iv]. D. Drake, Reforming the Health Care Market: An Interpretive Economic History (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1994).

[vi]. Mitchell, Managed Care and Developmental Disabilities.

[vii]. Drake, Reforming the Health Care Market.

[viii]. L. Weiss, Private Medicine and Public Health (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997).

[ix]. Employee Benefits Research Institute, EBRI Databook on Employee Benefits (Washington, DC: Employee Benefits Research Institute, 1992).

[x]. P. Saucier, “Managed Long-Term Services and Supports,” a presentation to the National Policy Forum, May 11, 2012.

[xi]. J. Iglehart, “Physicians and the Growth of Managed Care,” The New England Journal of Medicine 331, no. 17 (1994): 1167–71.

[xii]. R. Cauchi, “Where Do We Go From Here?” State Legislatures (March 1999): 15–20.

[xiii]. U.S. Department of Labor, Fact Sheet: Newborns’ and Mothers’ Protection Act,http://www.dol.gov/ebsa/newsroom/fsnmhafs.html.

[xiv]. D. Rembler, K. Donelan, R. Blendon, L. Lundberg, D. Leape, K. Binns, and J. Newhouse, “What Do Managed Care Plans Do to Affect Care: Results of a Survey of Physicians,” Inquiry 34 (1997): 196–204.

[xv]. P. Franks, C. Clancy, and P. Nutting, “Gatekeeping Revisited: Protecting Patients from Overtreatment,” The New England Journal of Medicine 337, no. 6 (1992): 424–9.


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